C++ Review Topics

2893 words - 12 pages

C++ fully supports object-oriented programming which includes the following:Encapsulation is the property of being a self-contained unit. With encapsulation we can accomplish data hiding. Data hiding is the highly valued characteristic that an object can be used without the user knowing or caring how it works internally. C++ supports the properties of encapsulation through the creation of user-defined types, called classes.Inheritance allows for the extension of an existing type. The new subclass derives from an existing type and is sometimes called a derived type.Polymorphism is the ability of allowing C++ to support the concept that different objects do "the right thing". There is function polymorphism and class polymorphism. Poly means may, and morphous means form.The ANSI Standard (American National Standards Institute) has created an international standard for C++. The C++ Standard is now also referred to as ISO (International Standards Organization) Standard. Also called the X3 Standard and ANSI/ISO Standard. Text Book uses the ANSI standard term.Using typedefRather than writeunsigned short intmany times, C++ enables you to create an alias for this phrase by using the keyword typedef, which stands for type definition. In effect, you are creating a synonym and not a new type.typedef unsigned short int USHORT;creates a new name USHORT that you can use anywhere instead of the longer form.#includeusing namespace std;typedef unsigned short int USHORT;int main(){USHORT Width = 5;USHORT Length;Length = 10;USHORT Area = Width * Length;cout << "Width: " << Width << endl;cout << "length: " << Length << endl;cout << "Area: " << Area << endl;return 0;}Enumerated ConstantsEnumerated Constants enable you to create new types and then to define variables of those types whose values are restricted to a set of possible values.enum COLOR { RED, BLUE, GREEN, WHITE, BLACK } ;The above statement makes COLOR the name of an enumeration (a new type). Also, RED becomes a symbolic constant with a value 0, BLUE value 1, etc.Every enumerated constant has an integer value. You can set the values to something other than the defaulted 0:enum COLOR { RED=100, BLUE, GREEN=500, WHITE, BLACK } ;then RED has the value 100, BLUE the value 101, GREEN 500, WHITE 501, etc.#includeusing namespace std;int main(){enum Days { Sunday, Monday, Tuesday,Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday };int choice;cout << "Enter a day (0-6): ";cin >> choice;if (choice == Sunday || choice == Saturday)cout << "\nYou're already off on weekends\n";elsecout << "\nNot on weekend\n";return 0;}Prefix and PostfixBoth the increment (++) and decrement (--) operators come in two types: prefix and postfix. The prefix comes before the variable (as in ++myAge) and the postfix comes after as in (myAge++).The prefix operator is evaluated before the assignment; the postfix is evaluated after.int a = ++x;The above says, increment x and...

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