This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Effects Of Calorie Restriction Essay

1588 words - 7 pages

Background
Nutrition plays a significant role in the human lifecycle because it provides energy, helps prevent diseases and promotes growth. The first documented evidence associating dietary restriction and aging came in 1935 in a study conducted by McCay et al that found that reducing the amount of calories consumed by 20% without causing malnourishment increased the lifespan and resistance to age related diseases in a rodent model (Colman et al., 2009; Sinclair, 2005). Typically a reduction of 10-40% of calorie intake is suggested by several authors as being effective in lengthening life, although a recent study using 30% dietary restriction was found to be ineffective in doing so in rhesus monkeys (Mattison et al., 2012).
Several hypotheses exist to explain the mechanism behind life extension due to caloric restriction (CR). Some of the earliest theories that never gained much support include the following: McCay’s original hypothesis that CR reduced the rate of growth and development and thereby increased lifespan; CR reduced metabolic rate which resulted in slower aging; and that the control animals used in the experiments eat significantly more than normal, which makes them age quicker than CR animals (Sinclair, 2005). It has since then been found that CR at any stage of life extends lifespan, and animals on CR show similar or greater metabolic rates than control animals, and the extension of life by CR is significant even when the study controls are fed a normal (not ad libitum) diet (Sinclair, 2005).
Another study proposed that CR slowed aging process by increasing resistance to hyperoxidation. As aging progressed in yeast and other animals, the presence of free radicals increased in the cells. Usually, the levels of these radicals are kept low by a redox system involving peroxiredoxin and sulfiredoxin. Peroxiredoxin reacts with the radicals and gets oxidized and inactive. Sulfiredoxin in turn activates the former by reducing it. Molin et al. (2011) found that CR increased levels of sulfiredoxin in yeast cells, which enabled these cells to keep peroxiredoxin activated for an extended period of time, thereby reducing free radicals and increasing lifespan. In addition, peroxiredoxin inhibited protein damage, which, also contributed to aging via age-related diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s (Molin et al., 2011).
More recently, theories that focus on biochemical mechanisms related to aging have tried to explain the mechanisms of CR mediated lifespan increase. In a study conducted by Berg & Simons in 1960, it was found that reducing fat in the diet increased lifespan. However, this finding does not seem to apply under all situations. Mair, Piper, and Partridge (2005) found that reducing yeast (that supplied proteins and fats) without altering the total calorie content of the diet extended the lifespan of Drosophila melanogaster. This finding suggests that it is not just the restriction of calories, but particular types of...

Find Another Essay On Effects of Calorie Restriction

Drastic Dieting Essay

987 words - 4 pages who recommend the calorie restriction diet, do not recommend exercise. Earlier, we briefly touched on the basic metabolism rate. According to a study published in JAMA, metabolic rate reduced more than projected when healthy, sedentary men and women were put on restricted calorie diets for six months. At the beginning of the trial, researchers reduced calorie amounts by 25% of the participant's baseline requirements. What's the Bottom

We Need a War to Fight Obesity

1337 words - 5 pages . government has complied and studied the country’s obesity statistics and is beginning its course of action to eliminate childhood obesity, as well as adult obesity. They have suggested or instituted a growing number of interventions and regulations to this effect, as well as some federal laws. One of these proposals is the restriction of sugary soda sales at public schools. There have been numerous studies showing how sugary sodas influence weight gain

To Fast or Not to Fast?

2338 words - 9 pages ". Moderation, variety and balance are key concepts in a healthy weight-loss plan. The report recommends avoiding low-calorie fad diets that promote weight loss through the exclusion of entire food categories, such as carbohydrates (bread and pasta). A related FDA web site report, titled "Never Say Diet?", states that diets that aim to restrict food intake are pathways to failure. While food restriction and low-calorie diets may at first be both

Why HCG is Bad For You

616 words - 3 pages retrieving stored fat from the mother's body and making it accessible to the fetus. Since 1927, the HCG hormone has been used for treating infertility in both men and women. The idea of its usefulness for treating obesity began to garner public awareness in 1954 when Dr. A.T. W. Simeons published his treatise. Simeons findings indicated patients did not exhibit the usual side-effects of calorie deprivation when the diet was supplemented with HCG

Is it better to lose fat by aerobic-type training or by strength training?

1903 words - 8 pages IntroductionTo optimize fat loss and at the same time minimize other side effects, exercise must be integrated with a reduced calorie diet program. The type of exercise to be integrated is where the debate begins. The question posed is the question of overall effectiveness of aerobic training versus strength training for fat loss.DiscussionDieting (without exercise) appears to be a highly effective way to lose a large amount of weight over a

Hot Legs or Hot Dogs

801 words - 4 pages a sudden apocalypse that took out all food sources and left the world in a state of frenzied hunger. Otherwise, the diet has no real benefits beside from the hollow formation between the thighs. However, engaging in such extreme measures has tolling effects on the body. The potential effects of severe calorie restriction include gallstones, fatigue, hair, bone and muscle loss, electrolyte imbalances and possibly death. These kinds of severe

is dieting dangerous?

2169 words - 9 pages recorded to have a higher percentage of body fat as they did before weight cycling (Gale, 2013). Yo-yo dieters wanting to quickly lose weight tend to be unaware of the serious risk factors associated with their dieting techniques. As mentioned before many of these diets include calorie restriction which can increase cortisol, a stress hormone in the body (McNight, 2013). Presence of cortisol in the body over a long period of time can have many

Effects of Overconsumption and Extreme Consumerism

1646 words - 7 pages public based on their lower prices and by forcing consumers to stray from such unhealthy food choices. Research done by Mytton and colleagues on the effects of increased prices of unhealthy foods on their consumption suggests that an increase of at least 20% of tax is needed to shift the market (Mytton). Overall, reducing the consumption of high calorie foods will reduce the risk of obesity among the population. Evidence from the results of

Bulimic Behaviors Among wrestlers

2342 words - 9 pages -event meal during the 5 hours between weigh in and competition consisting of high carbohydrates, non-greasy, and readily digested. Further, wrestlers, who are typically dehydrated, should keep protein intake minimal prior to a match. Instead the wrestlers in this study ate high-protein, high-fat foods such as steak, eggs, and protein bars before the event. Rankin et al (1996) found that weight loss by energy restriction (calorie reduction

A Healthy Lifestyle Might Help Combat Parkinson’s Disease and Alzheimer's Disease

3396 words - 14 pages than quercetin and catechin (flavonoids), the two other powerful antioxidants found in wine (Anekonda, 2006), but I shall be focusing on its additional molecular targets. It is argued that mechanisms of AD and ageing are intrinsically linked (Landfield et al., 1992). Calorie restriction (CR) is correlated with protection against AD, thought to act through the regulation of multiple genes, including the activation of SIRT1 (Barger et al., 2003; Qin

Slim-Fast® and Weight Loss

3545 words - 14 pages maintenance success than a calorie-restriction diet alone. Second, physical activity may create a more favorable body composition than a calorie-restricted diet. Calorie-restricted diets often burn lean body mass, whereas physical activity burns fat while promoting lean body mass. Third, an energy expenditure of at least 1500 calories per week is sufficient to maintain weight loss. Fourth, exercise has benefits other than weight loss, such as

Similar Essays

Theories Of Aging, Including The Telomere Theory, Oxidative Stress And Calorie Restriction Theories In Regards To Cell Senescence

962 words - 4 pages calorie restricted diets delay the aging process, there are numerous studies that all support the theory. Weindruch outlines animal models whereby the subjects are given up to 50% less calories without being malnourished. The effects are astounding; major diseases, including cancers, were postponed in calorie restricted subjects (Weindruch, 2006).Calorie restriction is considered a theory of aging in itself perhaps because it stimulates other

Calorie Restriction/Longevity Diet Essay

578 words - 2 pages introduction observations of the physiological changes caused by calorie restriction show that life-lengthening effects should also be evident in humans.Calorie restriction is an approach, an everyday life choice when practiced by humans that has been proven to increase healthy and highest life span in rodents and primates. Certain animal studies that have been done over the past two decades have shown up to a 40% increase in optimum life span

Caloric Restriction Extends Human Lifespan Essay

1630 words - 7 pages the comparison between the experiment and controls through a two way ANOVA for time course studies. Expected Findings The proposed study will show for the first time that reducing tryptophan and methionine contents in the diet for thirty days improves longevity in rats. It will also show the effects of calorie restriction in the aging process. However, calorie restriction on set levels prevents death by starvation. This has significant

Health Benefits Of The South Beach Diet

845 words - 3 pages , be avoided. Yet, this is not the only restriction of the diet. South Beach also limits the amount of food consumed each day to 1,500 calories. Based on an average daily intake of 2,000 calories, South Beach ensures weight loss by simply decreasing the overall amount of food (“2,000 Calories a Day”). In restricting both unhealthy foods and calorie intake, the South Beach diet proves beneficial to one’s health. The foods which South Beach