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Calorie Consumption And An Exercise Plan

1819 words - 8 pages

CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

Definition of Calorie

According to Ayoob( 2009), a calorie can be defined as a unit of heat energy that human body use as energy to produce heat. This energy fuels human body for strength in daily activity. In scientific term, there are two types of calories which small calorie and large calorie (Nordqvist, 2013).

A small calorie(symbol:cal) - 1cal is the amount of energy to required to raise one gram of water by one degree Celcius.
A large calorie(symbol:Cal,kcal) – 1Cal is the amount of energy required to raise one kilogram of water by one degree Celcius.
1 large calorie(1kcal) = 1000 small calories.
Calories can be found in fat, carbohydrate and protein. The main source of calorie comes from daily food intake. Too much calorie intake can lead to weight gain and too less calorie intake lead to weight loss. Therefore, in order to maintain body weight, consume calorie as only as much as body needed. (Jensen, 2001) . The body breaks down food molecules to release the energy stored within them. This energy is needed for vital functions like movement, thought, and growth -- anything that requires the use of energy. The body stores energy it does not need in the form of fat cells for future use.

Calorie Burning Factors

There are several factors that affect the calorie burning during walking phase which are grade of the walking surface, your weight, height, age, distance walking, step length, and speed. (Travis, 2013)

Elevation of surface – More calories are burned as the incline surface of the walking surface increase and less calories are burned as the decline of walking surface increase.

Weight – A bigger body weight exerts more effort and expends more energy running the same pace as the smaller individual.

Age – As age older, the amount muscles tends to decrease and fat account for more of weight, slowing down calorie burning.

Speed – The faster the speed, the more the calories will be burned. Given a fixed distance, speed does not taken into account as the calorie burned will be same because when two people with speed faster and the other one slower, with a fixed distance, both will burned same amount of calories.

Distance – Longer the distance, more energy is need to used hence more calories will be burned.

2.2.1 Walking vs. Running

Walking is not simply slow running; competitive race walkers can zip by recreational joggers. The difference between the two is not based on pace. At any speed, walkers have one foot on the ground at all times, but runners are entirely airborne during some part of every stride. As the pace increases, the percentage of each stride that is airborne increases; competitive runners have "hang times" of about 45%.*
What goes up must come down. That's why running is a high-impact activity. Each time they land, runners subject their bodies to a stress equal to about three times their body weight. In just one mile, a typical runner's legs will have to absorb more than 100...

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