Campus Secuirty And Your Rights Paper For A Cj Class

1901 words - 8 pages

Campus Secuirty and your rightsThe police are known sometimes to be intimidating, influential, and authoritative. The reaction of civilians to the police intervening with them, or their direct orders can vary with individuals. A study was done in 1981 in Minneapolis, to find out if the act of arresting or the threat to arrest all domestic violence offenders or possible offenders, deters further crime. Four different cities were used in this experiment, Milwaukee, Omaha, Dade County in Florida, and Colorado Springs. Three different strategies were used by the police: arresting the suspect, ordering the suspect from the premises for 24 hours, and trying to restore order (Berk, 1992). Lawrence ...view middle of the document...

681).Sherman and Smith form General Deterrence Hypotheses about the interaction between legal and informal threats of punishment. The first is conditional hypotheses then the replacement hypothesis, and finally the additive hypothesis. The conditional hypothesis claims that legal threats only deter potential offends are sufficiently tied to conventional society to suffer from its trauma of arrest. The replacement hypothesis assumes that the threat of legal control is effective only when informal control is absent.The additive hypothesis which is derived from Wrong (1961) and by Grasmick and McLaughlin (1978), claims that both informal and legal controls deter potential offenders. The more of either type of control, the greater the deterrence (Smith, 1992, pp. 681-682). They also determined that on average, individuals with strong bonds to spouses and to employment have a greater stake in conformity than unmarriedand unemployed individuals (Smith 1992, p. 683).The suspects that were sampled varied by race and in "stakes in conformity." Almost all (91 percent) of the suspects were male. Blacks comprised 79 percent of the suspects. Over one-half (56 percent) of the suspects were unemployed at the time they entered the experiment. The employed suspects were generally blue-collar service jobs. The majority of the couples (70 percent) had never married each other, but 68 percent reported living together for two years or more. About one-third of the suspects had a record of a prior incident of domestic violence (Smith 1992, p. 683).The findings of the study varied on different variables. 36.3 Percent of the offenders were involved in at least one subsequent incident of violence in the period following the experimental case. Out of 411 repeat offenders, 45 percent had more than two incidents during any of the variable follow-up periods (6 to 18 months). The rate for all the suspects for annual rate of subsequent violent incidents was .612 incidents per suspect per year, which is roughly a 1 out of 2 suspects per year for additionalviolence. Repeated violence is significantly higher for unmarried, black, and unemployed men. Subsequent battering as also more likely if the suspect had engaged in domestic violence during the previous year. Also, among married victims, only 11 percent of the known incidents were notreported to the interviewers compared to 29 percent for unmarried victims. A similar pattern holds for employment status, which is 28 percent withheld among victim of the unemployed compared to 21 percent among the employed. In addition, 28 percent of victims who were black withheld compared to 14 percent among whites. However, results indicate that whether the subject was arrested or simply warned had no significant association with the occurrence or number of subsequent violent incidents (Smith 1992, pp. 683-685).To summarize, the question of arrest influences subsequent violence is generally depending on the arrested person's stake in...

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