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Campylobacter Infection In Humans Essay

1254 words - 6 pages

Campylobacter jejuni, a motile, curved S or spiral shaped Gram negative rod, microaerophilic, is a common cause of human gastrointestinal infection (Garvis et al., 1996).
Drinking water may be the common reservoir causing campylobacter infection in human and animals, including wild birds and poultry (Kapperud et al., 2003). Under coocked chicken seems to be linked with a great proportion of campylobacteriosis (Phillips et al., 1997). Poor hygienic conditions and the existence of animals in the house are also responsible for campylobacter infection (Rao et al., 2001).
The presence of garbage in cooking areas and deficiency of knowledge about the proper sanitary disposal of faeces are the leading risk factors behind getting this infection (Ghosh et al., 2013). Among other risk factors, red meat, unpasteurised milk, unwashed vegetables and fruit, wild bird faeces, compost and sewage are also important (Whiley et al., 2013).
Diarrhea is responsible for one child death out of nine children in the world which makes it the second contributing cause of death in children below the age of five. Annual death rate due to diarrhea in children under the age of five is 10% worldwide (Liu et al., 2012). Among 139 low and middle income countries including Pakistan 1.9 billion events of childhood diarrhea occured in 1990 and approximately 1.7 billion events in 2010 (Walker et al., 2012).
The European Food Safety Authority and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control examined the data provided by 27 European Union Member states on the occurrence of zoonoses and food-borne outbreaks in 2011. According to which campylobacteriosis was the most commonly documented zoonosis which accounts 220,209 confirmed human cases (Anonymous., 2012). In developing countries especially African and South Asian countries, the isolation rates of campylobacter jejuni are also significant among diarrheal patients (Coker et al., 2002).
The specific virulence factors of pathogenicity in C.jejuni that are responsible for pathogenesis in host are chemotaxis, motility and flagella. These are required for attachment and colonization of the gut epithelium. The other possible virulence factors are iron acquisition, toxin production, host cell invasion, inflammation, active secretion and epithelial discontinuity with seepage of serosal fluid (Altekruse et al.,1999). C. jejuni infections are also responsible for Guillain Barré Syndrome in which host produced anti-Campylobacter antibodies that recognize and cross react with self gangliosides and damage peripheral nerve tissue (Nachamkin et al., 2008).

Objectives:
• Isolation and Identification of C.jejuni from children.

• To determine the prevalence of Diarrhea/ Dysentery caused by Campylobacter jejuni in Children of Faisalabad District.

• To determine the risk factors involved in the prevalence of Campylobacter...

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