Can Artificial Drainage Of Wetlands Have Detrimental Effects On The Characteristics Of The Soil?

1906 words - 8 pages

Introduction:
Wetland soils are widely diverse. They are found from the arctic to the tropics. They can be mineral or organic, seasonal or year-round, marine or freshwater. The one thing they all have in common is that, for at least part of the year, they are saturated with water. This saturation has a significant impact on the soil's characteristics such as the biota, chemistry, and physics. However, over the past century more than half of all the wetlands in the United States have been drained for agriculture and other uses such as construction. When the soils are drained the characteristics are drastically changed. This paper is an attempt to describe the changes in artificially drained soils and to consider a few of the consequences of these changes.
Body:
The physical properties of saturated soils vary somewhat from wetland to wetland but are characterized by certain processes. One is the interaction of the soil with the watertable. Three patterns of possible groundwater flow have been considered: water could flow into the saturated areas from the surrounding area (discharge), making the saturated area the focal point; water could flow through swamps because of local relief (flow-through); or water could flow from the saturated zone into surrounding areas (recharge) possibly due to differential water use by plant communities or pumping (Crownover et al, 1995). There can also be vertical exchange of water between the groundwater and saturated soil. For example, capillary effects pull water upward into the soil from the water table. Besides the vertical and horizontal flow of water, the area of the soil taken up by water is important. Wetland soils are either saturated or nearly saturated so that much of the pore space is taken up by water. Air plays a much more minor role in saturated soils than in unsaturated soil.
The high water content of these soils causes the chemistry to be primarily reducing rather than oxidizing as it is in most other soils. Most of the reactions are mediated by biological activities. Such a chemical environment means that the rate of decomposition of organic matter is relatively slow. The reduced carbon in the organic matter of saturated soils is the source of energy and electrons to drive the redox reactions (Schipper et al, 1994). Under slightly reducing conditions, the process of denitrification breaks down nitrate (NO3-) into N2 "through intermediates including nitrite (NO2) and N2O" (McBride, p. 265). Under strongly reducing conditions, some of the N2 is transformed into NH4- through plant enzyme-catalization in a process called nitrogen fixing. Reducing conditions also change sulfate (SO42- ) into H2S a noxious smelling gas. Much of the hydrogen sulfide is dissolved and dissociated in the water where the sulfide interacts with Fe2+ form iron sulfides. In more moderately reducing conditions the iron can be contained in siderite (Fe CO3). In both instances the solubility of iron is greatly reduced...

Find Another Essay On Can Artificial Drainage of Wetlands Have Detrimental Effects on the Characteristics of the Soil?

The detrimental efects of TV on children

587 words - 2 pages With the adverting of technology in the recent age, all of aspects of life are changed entirely. It influenced even the most private affairs of people. Mass media is one of the most popular types of the technology. Besides very useful effects of it, TV can have detrimental influences on children and young adolescents. These destructive effects include their personal activities like lack of self confidence, spiritual tenses, lack of creativity

Detrimental Effects of Poverty Essay

1967 words - 8 pages over the filth they observe, and confirm to themselves, how much distress the poor deserve. The effects of poverty are extremely detrimental, those who suffer from poverty suffer not only from an empty stomach, but from long term negative developmental and socio-emotional effects. The effects of poverty can be witnessed in the lack of physical development, proper hygiene, and poor general medical and dental care. However, poverty digs much

Discuss the changing business environmental factors that can have possible effects on the operation, use and development of HRIS

1358 words - 5 pages development of more complex HRIS, as stated by Nankervis, Compton and Baird (2004).Government regulations and legislations have also had a major impact on HRIS. The Equal Employment Opportunity Act 1977 (EEO), prohibits unfair discrimination based on race, nationality, religion, and gender in all employment practices. This means organisations must maintain comprehensive records on all employees with regards to this legislation. One of the

THE EFFECTS OF SEXUAL HARASSMENT IS A SERIOUS MATTER: WHICH CAN BE DETRIMENTAL TO THE VICTIM’S EMOTIONAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL HEALTH, DURING AND AFTER THE INDECENT ACT.

1272 words - 5 pages for the victim. In many instances, if the victim reports or files a complaint they can face retaliation from the harasser and friend or colleagues of the harasser (Menendez, Snyder, Scherer, & Fisher, 2012). Acts of sexual harassment can have a demoralizing effect on all employees in the range of it, even if The detrimental effects of Sexual Harassment 3 they are not directly involved. These revenges can involve more sexual harassment

The Detrimental Affects of Racism

772 words - 3 pages The moral and ethical disparity plaguing a malevolent, revolutionizing society is the direct consequence of humanity’s desire to achieve supremacy entailing social paralysis through the formulation of stereotypical viewpoints concerning ethnicity, social classification, and physical characteristics including vernacular and traditional activities. Humankind’s quest for social equality is illustrated in various occurrences in history specifically

The Detrimental Practice of Gerrymandering

1172 words - 5 pages stop gerrymandering to insure the country continues on the path of democracy. The U.S. must take quick and decisive measures to end the practice while it still can. Works Cited Foglia Phil. “19th Century Mass. Gov. Elbridge Gerry knew all about gerrymandering of political districts - he invented it!” Daily News. New York Daily News. 14 March 2014. Web. 6 May 2014. “Gerrymandering.” Britannica.com. Encyclopedia Britannica. 1 August 2013

Effects Mining has on The Soil in South Africa

1629 words - 7 pages amount of investment they have made. The mining industry has also provided over 700,000 jobs to these towns (Sorenses, 2012, p.22). These do not make up for the number of diseases and deaths recorded as a cause of consumption of food grown on soil contaminated by emissions from mining sites or acid mine drainage. Fig. 4. Health risk exposure pathways. Source: http://www.p2pays.org/ref/04/03336/terms.htm (Davies and Mundalamo, 2010

Impact of Global Warming on Coastal Wetlands

1655 words - 7 pages Impact of Global Warming on Coastal Wetlands Professor’s comment: Jane wrote this research paper for my Advanced Composition course. The assignment asks the students to read and understand six to ten articles within a research area of their choice, then synthesize the information so that a reader can quickly understand the present state of research in that area. Jane chose to look at how increased flooding and salinity might affect coastal

The Characteristics of Adolescents

3113 words - 12 pages characteristics of adolescents can create major implications and limitations on the counselling process, due to the extremity of the changes that are occurring in the individual. The adolescent is feeling vulnerable, insecure, unsure of who he is, feeling the need to revolt, prejudiced, uncompromising, and extremely influenced by his peers. Therefore, the normal processes that may occur during therapy have to be altered

Detrimental Effects of Extended Unemployment Compensation

1435 words - 6 pages bridge, the unemployed have an opportunity to embark on a course to fiscal recovery. However, benefits should not compromise their purpose by diminishing the employment incentive of recipients, or causing other adverse effects. According to Feldstein, the current system of unemployment benefits “. . . provides an incentive to inappropriately long durations of unemployment” (39). He goes on to say, “. . . it provides both employers and employees

The Characteristics of God

2646 words - 11 pages not logically permitted and further still there are in fact other attributes which we should reason the creator to have. To justify this position, that from an effect we can infer of its cause only what is necessitated by the effect, Hume uses two examples of scales and of artists. In the example of scales Hume explains that if an object of unknown weight is placed on one side of a balance and an object known to weigh ten ounces on the other and

Similar Essays

Possible Solutions To Remedy The Detrimental Effects Of Soil Acidity On Tropical Agriculture

2174 words - 9 pages Possible Solutions to Remedy the Detrimental Effects of Soil Acidity on Tropical Agriculture Arable tropical soils, which mainly consist of Oxisols and Ultisols but also include regions of Inceptisols and Alfisols, cover approximately one billion hectares; this area represents 33 percent of the total potentially arable land of this world which does not require irrigation. Most of these soils have optimum conditions for crop production

Artificial Drainage Of Soils Essay

1875 words - 8 pages Wetland soils are extremely varied. They are found from the tropics to the subarctic. They can be seasonal or year-round, freshwater or saltwater, organic or mineral. The one thing that all of them have in common is that for at least part of the year they are saturated with water. This saturation has a significant impact on the soil's physics, chemistry, and biota. However, over the past century more than half of all the wetlands in the United

The Loss Of Coastal Wetlands Essay

733 words - 3 pages populations”(Anonymous, 2011). Coastal wetlands are an economical asset as well as an environmental one. Human activity is one of the leading causes of the disappearance of coastal wetlands. As the human population increases in coastal cities so does the demand for more land. Urbanization is causing enormous amounts of devastation to the existing wetlands. Unrestricted development is causing the erosion of soil, which is dumping foreign sediments

Does Having An Offshore Occupation Have A Detrimental Impact On The Dyanamic Of The Family

1837 words - 8 pages minimised. To do this, an age restriction of 13 and above will be enforced. The reason for this is to ensure the participant is capable of understanding what the task entails and can give informed consent. Furthermore, the topic being approached is delicate; participants may have difficulty opening up regarding the impact the occupation has on the family. The researcher/ Interviewer should ensure that no harm should be brought to any of the