This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Cancer 2 Essay

1082 words - 4 pages

Introduction to Cancer The individual unruly cell that has escaped the normal regulatory control mechanisms is the basic unit of cancer.Inside the nucleus is a substance called DNA, which contains genetic information for the body, organized in units called genes. These genes contain the complete plans for the body. They determine weather you have a blue or a green eye, weather you will have two or four legs, etc. They send out information that tells the cell what chemicals to make, as well as how much and when to make them.In nucleus, genes are joined together, like beads on a chain, into structures called chromosomes. A normal human body cell has 46 chromosomes, which contain an average of several thousand genes each. During certain phases of the cell's life cycle, the chromosomes are stretched out into long, thin strands, and they are tangled together into a network called chromatin. In addition to genes, chromosomes contain proteins, some of which cover the genes that are not "turned on" at the particular time.The original genetic information, stored in a coded form DNA, is carried out of the nucleus by RNA and then translated into proteins by ribosomes. 70% of oncogenes are located in the weak points of the chromosomes-hereditary regions where the DNA molecule may break or its portions may be rearranged into new combinations. Actually most of the times, the nucleus and the DNA are constantly exposed to substances that may alter the genes. But these alterations are almost always prepared by intricate mechanism with the function of preventing havoc in the cell. But if these changes persist in a given cell, that altered gene will breed true. Such damage to the chromosome may remove the oncogene from the influence of the genetic control mechanisms that normally govern its actions or an inactive oncogene may remove next to another gene that has an activating affect. This way the DNA in the cell is changed to activate the oncogenes. Instead of sending out the signals for normal growth and development, oncogenes carry instructions that cause cells to grow and divide more rapidly than normal cells - Researchers have found that when the cell membranes of two normal cells touch each other, both cells stop growing. Somehow each gives the other a signal that turns off the DNA that controls cell growth and division. Scientists call this exchange of signal contact inhibition. But when two cancer cells touch each other, somehow the stop signal is not given or is not received properly. The DNA is not turned off and the cancer cells continue to grow and divide. They pile up in an untidy heap, one upon another. They can even invade normal tissues. Normally there is something like glue between the cells that hold them together. Cancer cells give off, or secrete a certain chemical that dissolves this glue. The cancer cells can squeeze through the normal cells and spread through them. They form a growing lump of cancerous tissue called a tumor. Dozens of...

Find Another Essay On Cancer 2

Overview of Small Cell Lung Cancer

1679 words - 7 pages breast cancer. “Lung cancer accounts for about 14% of all new cancers.” (American Cancer Society) In 2013 an estimated 228,190 new cases of lung cancer and 159,480 deaths. Lung cancer is predominantly in people 65 and older. Only 2% of the patients diagnosed are younger than 45. Small cell lung cancer is a scary thing to be diagnosed with as is any cancer. With the right testing, treatment, and care it can be somewhat more comforting to these

Learning about, and Preventing Cancer Essay

1053 words - 5 pages try to do at least 2 ½ hours of moderate activity every week. In the UK around 12,500 people die every year because of cancer caused by alcohol. Alcohol can cause mouth cancer Pharyngeal cancer, oesophageal cancer, laryngeal cancer, breast cancer, bowel cancer, or liver cancer. Malignant melanoma and non-malignant skin cancer is caused by too many UV rays from the sun or tanning beds. At least 12,800 people in the UK are diagnosed with malignant

Gastric Cancer and Gender, Age and Race

1989 words - 8 pages stomach cancer, making a person's cells more predisposed to mutate. A person with a family history of gastric cancer is 2 - 3 times more likely to be afflicted with the cancer than a person with a clean family history. Risky habits can also cause an increased the chances of having gastric cancer. For example, a smoker is more prone to stomach cancer than a nonsmoker. ("Stomach cancer," 2012) Tobacco smoke, in particular, is apt to cause cancer due to

The Causes of Breast Cancer - Genetically or Environmentally Influenced?

1073 words - 4 pages ://>.Staff, of Imaginis. "Breast Cancer Worldwide." Imaginis. 26 April 2010 <>.Staff, of MayoClinic. "Breast Cancer Causes". MayoClinic. 26 April 2010 <>.
Staff, of

Cancer Essay

917 words - 4 pages always improving so the numbers may be higher. The survival rate for Stage 1, 76%, Stage 2 (average of a,b,c category) 54%, Stage 3 (average of a,b,c category) 49%, and Stage 4, 6%. The percentages give an overall picture of survival rates, but everybody is different, so you can't say what will happen with each person. Even though colon cancer is very deadly, when colon cancer is found early there is a high chance that an individual will survive

Lung Cancer

1201 words - 5 pages thought to arise from the epithelial cells, the cells lining the larger and smaller airways (bronchi and bronchioles); for this reason, lung cancers are sometimes called bronchogenic cancers or bronchogenic carcinomas. Cancers can also arise from the pleura (called Funderburk 2 mesotheliomas) or rarely from supporting tissues within the lungs. There are two major types of lung cancer, which are non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung

Facts, Causes, and Information on Breast Cancer

785 words - 4 pages lead to cancer. Your risk of developing breast cancer increases as you get older. “1 of 8 breast cancer are found when women are younger than 45. 2 of 3 breast cancer are found in women age 55 years or older 75 percent greater chance”.(1) Breast Cancer can lead Peutz Jeghers syndrome the effects of Peutz Jeghgers is spots on your lips and in their mouths. Women with no children or who had a child after age 30 have slightly higher breast cancer

Fighting a losing battle: spending billions and making little progress in the war on cancer.

826 words - 4 pages cancer, which equals approximately 1,600 deaths per day 1. One can think of cancer as a biological terrorist taking more lives annually than all of the casualties from combat in the United States during 19th century 2. Cancer effects are not only seen in the number of deaths it causes, but it also results in tremendous grief and pain for those who continue to battle cancer. With no cure in the foreseeable future, it is clear we are fighting a losing

Hereditary colon cancer

993 words - 4 pages . HNPCC develops also at a young age but not as young as FAP patients. The actual cancer appears in the persons 40's. HNPCC is known as a "fast growing" form of cancer. Along with colon cancer HNPCC patients are also at a much higher risk for other forms of cancer.Page 2 The causative factors of these cancers are not known at this time. Many doctors, scientists, and medical researchers believe individuals who fall into high-risk categories might

The Truth about Lung Cancer

1585 words - 7 pages (deoxyribonucleic acid). When cells mature they divide into 2 new cells by duplicating its DNA. This means that cells make an exact copy of themselves in order to allow our bodies to maintain a normal healthy lifestyle. When an abnormal cell begins to mature in our body, it will also duplicate itself forming other abnormal cells in our body. This is known as an error, or mutation in a cell’s DNA which is known to be the beginning of cancer. There are

Small Cell Lung Cancer

995 words - 4 pages In 2002, the American Cancer Society reported that more than 150,000 Americans die from the disease every year. Only 15 percent of people with lung cancer will live five years. Cancer is when cells in a part of the body begin to grow out of control. Small cell lung cancer is due more to smoking. Although small cell lung cancer "(SCLC) is due more to smoking, it may also be inherited.There are 2 main types of lung cancers and they are both

Similar Essays

Unlocking The Potential Of Bcl 2 Antagonists: Key To Targeting Cancer

1122 words - 4 pages death by interfering with the apoptotic signal cascade. The presence of B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family proteins is a unique feature of tumorous cells, in which the cells never die [Brunelle and Letai]. The Bcl-2 protein family is categorized as either pro- or anti-apoptotic, and therefore is the key to maintaining the survival, or death, of a cell. Cancer cells often overexpress anti-apoptotic proteins such as BCL-2, MCL-1, and BCL-XL

Breast Cancer Essay

989 words - 4 pages "Breast Cancer." Kids InfoBits Presents: Diseases and Disorders. Gale, 2009. Reproduced in Kids InfoBits. Detroit: Gale, 2 Feb. 2012. "Breast Cancer." Pamphlet by: National Cancer Institute. National Cancer Institute, 1999. 1. Gale Student Resources In Context. Web. 20 Jan. 2012. Meister, Kathleen, and John Morgan. "Risk Factors for Breast Cancer." Pamphlet by: American Council on Science and Health. American Council on Science and Health, 2000. 1. Gale Student Resources In Context. Web. 20 Jan. 2012. NBCF. "Types of Breast Cancer." National Breast Cancer Foundation® Official Site. NBCF. 31 Jan. 2012

Bone Cancer Essay

1095 words - 5 pages chemotherapy because it can reach and kill cancer cells all throughout the body. In conclusion, there are many types of bone cancer, but the success rates are high, and the chances of getting it are fairly rare compared to other types of cancer. Sources 1. The American Cancer Society. (2013, June 13). How is bone cancer treated? Retrieved from 2. The

Thyroid Cancer Essay

1145 words - 5 pages -cancer-twenty-first-century-and-beyond>. 2. Da Vinci Surgery. "Thyroid Cancer." Web. 26 Mar. 2011. . 3. MedicineNet. "Thyroid Cancer Symptoms, Causes, Treatment - What Causes Thyroid Cancer, and What Are Risk Factors for Thyroid Cancer on MedicineNet." MedicineNet - Health and Medical Information Produced by