Colon Cancer Essay

772 words - 3 pages

Colon Cancer

Disease Name: Colon Cancer
Chromosome Number: #2
Locus Designation: 2p16

In the summer of 1993 researchers discovered a gene, known as MSH2, is lacking within colon cells. The MSH2 genes main function is to detect and correct small mutations that occur during cell division. The cause of colon cancer arises when this gene does not provide this protection to colon cells. This lack of protection causes multiple mutations within the colon cells until they become cancerous.

Only about 6% of all colorectal cancer is said to be hereditary. Sporadic, or non hereditary colorectal cancer, makes up the other 94%. Hereditary colorectal cancer is made up of two syndromes- HNPCC (Hereditary Non Polyposis Colorectal Cancer) and FAP (Familial Adenomatous Polyposis). HNPCC is estimated to be 5% of the total hereditary colorectal cancer. HNPCC is a autosomal dominant disease, meaning that children have a 50% chance of inheriting the genetic trait from one of the parents being autosomally dominant. The parents who are autosomal dominant have a defect in their mis- match genes which identify and repair somatic mutations in DNA during cell division. Four genes have been identified as carrying this mutation; hMSH2, hMHL1, hPMS1, and hPMS2. ( h standing for hereditary)

FAP constitutes only about 0.5 % of all hereditary colorectal cancer. It is also an autosomal dominant disease. Patients with FAP have a 100% risk of getting colorectal cancer, but it can be avoided. FAP is caused by a mutation in the APC gene on chromosome 5. The APC gene is able to be detected by a blood test. A study done in 1994 revealed that since the time the APC gene was identified 100 different mutations leading to stop codons have been found. 23% of those mutations were clustered within 300 codons in exon 15 of the APC gene. In codon 1309 there was a 5 base pair deletion found within exon 15. This mutation in codon 1309 leads to development of colonic polyps, thus leading to earlier malignant transformation.

The defective genes job to identify and repair somatic mutations in DNA during cell division was later referred to as microsatellite instability. It was identified in...

Find Another Essay On Colon Cancer

Preventing Colon Cancer Essay

1021 words - 5 pages Colon cancer has becoming more prevalent in the past few decades. However, it is one of the cancers that can be prevented through positive lifestyle and eating habits. The common symptoms that are seen in colon cancer include bloody, pencil-shaped stools, weight loss, tumor growth, abnormal bowel habits, etc. As Adrouny (2002) noted, the available treatments for colon cancer can be chemotherapy, radiation, as well as surgical, the primary

Colon Cancer and Chemotherapy Treatment Essay

1825 words - 8 pages     My grandmother was diagnosed with colon cancer in 2001 and again in 2011. She died shortly after her second surgery. I never really thought about what cancer was before this and what it does to someone’s body. I am sure there are others that never really look at specific diseases or illnesses until it affects them directly. Cancer is a horrible killer where abnormal cells multiply within a person’s body and reproduce to form a tumor

Independent research study on colon cancer

2679 words - 11 pages Research PaperI. Question and Hypothesis1.) Does fiber help prevent colon cancer?2.) If a high fiber intake is taken daily, then the risk of colon cancer is reduced.3.) Independent variable: FiberDependent variables: Incidences of colon cancerControl: Patients without colon cancerOther factors: Age, gender, duration of studies, dosage of fiber intake, general population, and patients' health status.4.) The purpose of this research paper is to

Colon Cancer Research Should Receive More Government Funding

3109 words - 12 pages “I know people are pretty well embarrassed just at the mention of colon cancer. Sticking a tube in you to find out what’s wrong is not a nice thing. But I can tell them, a 30- or 40 minute test is worth it. We have to make them feel more comfortable about getting screened.” (Eric Davis). Most people are not exactly sure what colon cancer is. Colon cancer forms in the cells of the colon walls. Colon cancer is a deadly cancer and

Preoperative Anemia in Colon Cancer: Assessment of Risk Factors

4141 words - 17 pages cancer with an incidence of 57.6 per cent followed by left colon cancer (42.2%) and rectal cancer (29.8%). Patients with right colon cancer had significantly lower preoperative hematocrits compared with left colon cancer (33 ± 8.5 vs 36 ± 7.4; P < 0.01) and rectal cancer (33 ± 8.5 vs 38±6.0; P < 0.0001). Patients with right colon cancer also had significantly increased stage at presentation compared with left

Differences in Cancer Stem Cell Properties in Human Colon Cancer Cell Lines HCT116 and HT29

2870 words - 12 pages Summary: Background and objective. Tumor heterogeneity is shown to be related to clinical outcome in cancer patients. The concept of a small subset of cancer stem cells being responsible for tumor relapse and metastasis comes out as a promising strategy for targeted cancer therapy. However, cancer stem cells are not easy to identify and isolate. The aim of this study was to determine the putative colon cancer stem cell subsets in human colon

“Determination of Aurora-A amplification in colon cancer by copy number PCR as a biomarker of resistance to chemotherapy”.

2062 words - 9 pages regression in xenograft models of leukemia and colon cancer with no effect on non-cycling primary human cells. The mechanism of action has been described by Santini et. al [2007] and indicated VX-680 weakly binds to Aurora-A in the open active conformation and subsequently traps the enzyme in a closed conformation (via binding and stabilising the hydrophobic activation loop). Santini et. al [2007] also states the degree of selectivity depends on the

Cancer Essay

917 words - 4 pages major types of treatments used to treat cancer include, surgery to remove the affected organ, radiation, chemotherapy, or biological treatments. Colon cancer forms in the colon, the largest part of the large intestine. Most colon cancers are adenocarcinomas (cancer that begins in cells that make and release mucosa and other fluids.) I chose colon cancer because my grandpa had colon cancer. He died in the nineteen fifties when my mom was 7. I know


546 words - 2 pages Assignment: Chronic DiseaseRisk AssessmentIn my assessment I chose to do the colon cancer assessment, colon cancer is cancer of the large intestine. There are many risk factors for colon cancer are your age over 90% of this disease occur in people over the age of 50, gender usually men have a slightly higher risk of colon cancer than women, race and ethnicity African-Americans have the highest risk of being diagnosed with, and dying from colon


798 words - 4 pages Discussion In this study, we investigated the CSC phenotype in two human colon cancer cell lines HCT116 and HT29 based on their expression of surface markers, chemoresistance properties, side population phenotype and gene expression analysis. Our results confirm that both cell lines differ in their stemness properties. We propose to define the putative CSC subsets as CD44+/CD24-/CD133- in HCT116 cell line and CD24+/CD44-/CD133- in HT29 cell line

Alcohol And Cancer

695 words - 3 pages A large number of epidemiological studies assessing the link between alcohol consumption and risk of cancer have found strong associations for increased risk in a number of cancers, namely those of the Upper Aero Digestive Tract (oral cavity, larynx, pharynx and oesophagus (UADT)), stomach, colon and breast. The evidence is inconsistent and varies in the degree of significance for the different types of cancer (Bagnardi, 2001, Seitz et al, 2004

Similar Essays

Colon Cancer Disease Essay

1665 words - 7 pages “Once colon cancer becomes symptomatic, nine times out of ten it is too late” (“Colon Quotes”). Colon cancer has always been an issue in the world. It is a deadly cancer that has killed many over the years. Colon cancer affects both men and women as they get older. There have been many deaths and diagnosis over the years because of colon cancer. It affects patients, families, and friends because of the battles the patients have to go

Hereditary Colon Cancer Essay

993 words - 4 pages Hereditary Colon Cancer Colon cancer is one of many cancers to plague United States citizens. There are four known types of colon cancer. Fourteen percent of all cancers diagnosed are colon cancer. Colon cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer. Sporadic cancer accounts for 80 percent of all colon cancers and is considered non-hereditary. The remaining 20 percent of cancer are related to heredity. Familial Adenomatous Polyposis Coli

Treatment Of Colon Cancer Essay

1482 words - 6 pages It is widely known that cancer is lethal; but colon cancer ranks high among the types of cancers that take away the lives of a plethora of people every year. Colon cancer is a type of cancer that occurs in the colon and at times, rectum, of the long intestine. In a report published by The American Cancer Society, colon cancer is said to be “the third leading cause of cancer death” and “the third most commonly diagnosed cancer” (Alteri et al. 1

Colon And Rectum Cancer Essay

1866 words - 8 pages The American Cancer Society estimates that over 100,000 men and women living in the United States will be diagnosed with colon cancer in 2013. Statistically, cancers of the colon and rectum are often combined and referred to as colorectal cancer. This addition brings the total to over 140,000 affected individuals with over 50,000 of these diagnoses resulting in death (American cancer society, 2013). Globally, the impact of this disease reached