Natural Silk, collagen, gelatin, fibrinogen, hyaluronic acid, alginate • Biodegradable
• Easily available
• Bioactive, interact with cells
Synthetic PEG, PGA, PMMA, PLGA • Facilitate restoration of structure of damaged tissues
• Long shelf-life
• Easily tailored for desired porosity and degradation time
• Predictable and reproducible mechanical and physical properties
Table 1. Natural and synthetic materials (Anandika Dhaliwal,2013)
Application on 3D model that contribute to Oral Cancer
Three-dimensional (3D) in-vitro cell culture is a system best in reflecting or mimicking the in vivo cancer cell behavior and its progression in cancer microenvironment (Gurski ...view middle of the document...
This tissue-engineered 3D model of oral mucosa provides high yield of differentiation, able to keep in sight of cell damage or growth, and even able to study the cell, protein or mRNA expression. It is consists of three processes and takes around two to three weeks times in preparation of collagen-embedded fibroblast, addition of mucosal component and airlifting of culture for equalize differentiation or stratification (Dongari-Bagtzoglou & Kashleva, 2006). This inexpensive and reproducible oral mucosa OKF6/TERT-2 based model enable the studies on cytotoxicity or inducile cytokine, beta-defensin expression by resembling the primary oral keratinocytes. Moreover, this model also provide the research opportunity on the host-pathogen interaction besides of able to be apply in microbiostatic or microbiocidal assay to understand the efficient of antimicrobial used in oral mucosa in-vivo environment (Dongari-Bagtzoglou & Kashleva, 2006).
Application on 3D Culture Model that contribute to Ovarian Cancer
One of the applications of 3D culture with increasing research is on Ovarian Cancer Model. Ovarian cancer is the fifth leading lethal cancer in women, due to its early spreading and rapid chemotherapy resistance development (Pease, Brewer, & Tirnauer, 2012). With the advancement in 3D tissue culture, the characteristics of the cancer cells can be observed and studied in order to improve the treatments for cancer effectively.
In the research carried out by Pease et al. (2012), clusters of tumor cell in the patient’s peritoneal fluid known as spheroids were suspected to be a potential contribution in promoting spreading in ovarian cancer cells. The research suggested that formation of spheroids can occur by budding directly from a monolayer. A monolayer of ovarian cancer cells were cultured in standard media with 10 % FBS and the formation of budded spheroids was observed and their characteristics such as size, viability and growth factor were studied. The results showed that spheroid formation through budding from adherent monolayer cells was discovered and it was a significant contribution to spreading of ovarian cancer in the patients. These spheroids are resistant to the chemotherapy drugs such as Cisplatin and Placlitaxel, the dissociation of spheroids will completely reverse this resistance.
Another 3D culture was carried out by Lawrenson et al. (2013) on the fallopian tube secretory epithelial cells (FTSECs) model to study ovarian cancer. FTSECs have been suspected to be the origin cell for the cancer. The 3D culture of FTSECs model proposed in this research was an advantage to study the human fallopian tube as the biology of FTSECs was poorly understood due to the challenging in accessing normal primary FTSECs. In the research by Lawrenson et al. (2013), FTSECs were isolated from a normal person and sub-cultured. The molecular features of the established FTSEC culture resembled the fresh FTSEC sample compared to 2D model. The application of this...