Carbon Compounds Essay

1464 words - 6 pages

Carbon Compounds

23.1 What is carbon Compounds?
 carbon compounds are far more numerous and varied than compounds formed from other elements
 there are millions of different carbon compounds
 most are combinations with hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorous, and the hologens
 some general and physical properties of carbon atoms are :
 non electrolytes, or very weak electrolytes
 low melting points
 compounds made solely from carbon and hydrogen are generally non-polar and insoluble in water
23.2 Where do Carbon Compounds come from?

Coal
 composed chiefly of carbon of carbon atoms, incorporated appreciable amounts of oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur compounds into it’s structure

Destructive distillation
 in which coal is heated in the absence of air, liberated many carbon compounds
Coal tar was separated into 200 different carbon compounds
 In order to maintain living conditions, organisms must synthesize numerous carbon-based molecules such as protein, fats, sugars, cellulose, etc.

 Since all the sources of carbon compounds came from living organisms, chemistry of carbon was called organic chemistry.

23.3 So many organic compounds
Why So Many?
The bonding Behavior of Carbon:
 For electrons available for bonding, electrons can be shared in four covalent bonds
 Carbon atoms can be linked together to form chains of various lengths
 Different arrangements of the same atoms result in different substances, each with unique chemical and physical identities
23.4 Sorting Out Organic Compounds
Hydrocarbons:
 Carbon compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen atoms
 Organic compounds in which some or all of the hydrogen atoms have been replaced by other atoms are consider derivatives of hydrocarbons
Carbon backbone (skeleton)
 Longest chain in a hydrocarbon molecule (e.g.)
 Simple molecules are called straight –chain or unbranched hydrocarbons(eg)

 more complex hydrocarbons may be composed of several carbon chains that cross, these are called branched hydrocarbons (eg)
 hydrocarbons may contain all single bonds or combinations of single, double and triple bonds
 saturated molecules cannot incorporate additional molecules into their structure, and entirely made up of single carbon-carbon bonds
 hydrocarbons containing at least one double pr triple carbon- carbon bond are referred to as unsaturated
Saturated unsaturated

23.5 Alkanes

 Straight ( or branched) chain, saturated compound containing only single bonds, result from fractional distillation (table 23.1 pg. 676)
 Relatively low boiling points because of the low degree of intermolecular attraction due to hydrocarbons being generally non-polar
Methane gas (CH4):
 Simplest of all alkanes
...

Find Another Essay On Carbon Compounds

Characteristic of Organic Compounds Essay

1276 words - 5 pages What are organic compounds, you may ask? Well organic compounds are compounds that always contain carbon, or any compound that contains a carbon atom. But some describe organic compounds as any of a large class of chemical compounds in which one or more atoms of carbon are covalently linked to atoms of other elements, most commonly are hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. But there are a few exceptions to this organic rule, which are carbon

Mediator-free electrocatalytic oxidation of phenolic compounds and the simultaneous sensing of catechol, p-cresol and p-nitrophenol at single-wall...

551 words - 3 pages sensing of phenolic compounds in a mixture because of their inherent sensitivity and miniaturization without loss of performance and high compatibility with micro- and nano-technologies.18,19 Owing to miniaturization, inexpensive instrumentation, excellent detection limit, high sensitivity and selectivity, carbon nanotube-based electrochemical sensor is a powerful potential sensing method and its applications towards chemical and biochemical

Photosynthesis: The Emergence and Early Evolution of Biological Carbon-Fixation.

1097 words - 4 pages pathways, green plants, algae, and certain bacteria are able to convert inorganic carbon into organic compounds useful to all living organisms on earth (Aresta and Wiley, 2010). Hypothesis Photosynthesis is the main means green plants use to fix carbon dioxide in the environment, but it is unfortunate that it seldom suffices the carbon needs of living organisms. Results and Evidence However, scholars have discovered various pathways of carbon

Mixture and Compound Differences

635 words - 3 pages Mixture and Compound Differences 1 One difference between mixtures and compounds is that compounds have a certain composition as opposed to mixtures that can be varied. Chemical compounds are made up of at least two elements that are bonded together in a fixed mass ratio that can only be split apart by chemical means. And a mixture is a substance created by merging at least two different materials with no chemical reaction. Also compounds

Alkanes & Alkenes

570 words - 2 pages AlkanesPhysical properties:The chemistry of carbon compounds is called organic chemistry. There are millions of organic chemicals, but they can be divided into groups called homologous series. All members of a particular series will have similar chemical properties and can be represented by a general formula.The alkane series is the simplest homologous series. The main source of alkanes is from crude oil.Alkanes are covalent compounds. They are

The Comparative Abundance Of The Elements

514 words - 2 pages . Common soils and clays are silicates.2. Living ThingsIn living things (plants, animals, people) the six most abundant elements are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur (known as CHONPS). Most compounds in living matter are radically complex, each molecule could contain hundreds or thousand's of atoms. Carbohydrates and fats are compounds which contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen only. Proteins are also compounds and they contain

Hydrogen

558 words - 2 pages universe though both the proton-proton reaction and carbon-nitrogen cycle. Hydrogen occurs in almost all organic compounds. Many of the compounds found in plant and animal tissues are organic. Production of hydrogen in the U.S. alone now amounts to about 3 billion cubic feet per year. Some of the methods that hydrogen is prepared by are steam on heated carbon, decomposition of certain hydrocarbons with heat, action of sodium or potassium hydroxide on

Dalton's Atomic Theory.

627 words - 3 pages of compounds with amazing accuracy. By 1799 enough data had been accumulated for Proust to state the Law of Constant Composition, and by 1803 Dalton began his work with oxygen and carbon, noting that it combined to make two compounds. Each compound had its own weight ratio for oxygen in relation to carbon, but for the same amount of carbon, one compound had had exactly twice as much oxygen as the other. From these and other findings, Dalton

Carbon pollution

1927 words - 8 pages electronic configuration (2, 8, 4) makes it a neutral substance that is mostly unreactive. However, this is ironic, because carbon exists in all forms of matter. In fact, the organic substance is known to form very strong covalent bonds that make its compounds (carbon monoxide (CO)) very stable. The most common of Carbon compounds is the sugars, which include glucose, cellulose and starch. In most foods we consume, there is a large amount of the

Discovery of the Compound Buckminsterfullerene

1256 words - 5 pages Discovery of the Compound Buckminsterfullerene Once in a while there are discoveries of compounds which surprise the scientific community. In 1985 such a discovery took place; it was the discovery of the compound named Buckminsterfullerene. The compound was the first of its kind: a big 60-atom molecule resembling a soccer ball, composed of carbon, and arranged in a perfect geodesic sphere. This compound was unique in its nature because it

Chemical Bonds (Download PDF attachment for full document with pictures)

1961 words - 8 pages types of Minerals.5.Examples of Minerals which exist in the form of free Elements include Diamond(Carbon), Gold, Platinum, Silver.6.Most Minerals which exist in the form of Compounds include the Oxides, Sulphides and Carbonates of Metals.e.g.MineralChemical Name/CompositionChemical Formula1.HematiteIron (III)OxideFe2O32.CassiteriteTin (IV) OxideSnO23.BauxiteAluminum OxideAl2O34.PyriteIron (II) SulphideFeS5.GalenaLead (II) SulphidePbS6

Similar Essays

Organic Chemistry Essay

1153 words - 5 pages inorganic compounds usually possessed. The crystals were actually identical to crystals of urea, a compound found in urine. Fredrich had completed an "˜impossible' task by making an organic compound out of inorganic materials. This experiment started the end of the "vitalism" theory.Today organic chemistry is the study of chemistry of compounds that contain carbon. It should be kept in mind however that some carbon compounds are inorganic

5 Minuet Oral On 'carbon' The Element Incl. Bibliography

1141 words - 5 pages Carbon is the sixth most common element on Earth; it is an essential part of nearly all living things. 94% of the six million known compounds contain carbon, this is far more than any other element ever discovered. It has the lowest melting point of all the elements at -3550 º C, and a very high boiling point of 4827 º C. IT has a density of 2.2670 grams per cubic centimetre and at room temperature it is a solid. It has an atomic

Carbon. Essay

1062 words - 4 pages Carbon, an element discovered before history itself, is one of the most abundant elements in the universe. It can be found in the sun, the stars, comets, and the atmospheres of most planets. There are close to ten million known carbon compounds, many thousands of which are vital to the basis of life itself (WWW 1).Carbon occurs in many forms in nature. One of its purest forms is diamond. Diamond is the hardest substance known on earth. Although

Benzene Essay

509 words - 2 pages structure remained amystery for 40 years. The problem was perplexing because the C(6)H(6) formula indicateda high degree of unsaturation, but benzene does not display the reactivity characteristic of such compounds.      In 1865, German chemist Friedrich August Kekule von Stradonitz proposed thatbenzene is structurally a planar hexagon in which the six carbon atoms are joined byalternating single and double bonds. Because