23.1 What is carbon Compounds?
carbon compounds are far more numerous and varied than compounds formed from other elements
there are millions of different carbon compounds
most are combinations with hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorous, and the hologens
some general and physical properties of carbon atoms are :
non electrolytes, or very weak electrolytes
low melting points
compounds made solely from carbon and hydrogen are generally non-polar and insoluble in water
23.2 Where do Carbon Compounds come from?
composed chiefly of carbon of carbon atoms, incorporated appreciable amounts of oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur compounds into it’s structure
in which coal is heated in the absence of air, liberated many carbon compounds
Coal tar was separated into 200 different carbon compounds
In order to maintain living conditions, organisms must synthesize numerous carbon-based molecules such as protein, fats, sugars, cellulose, etc.
Since all the sources of carbon compounds came from living organisms, chemistry of carbon was called organic chemistry.
23.3 So many organic compounds
Why So Many?
The bonding Behavior of Carbon:
For electrons available for bonding, electrons can be shared in four covalent bonds
Carbon atoms can be linked together to form chains of various lengths
Different arrangements of the same atoms result in different substances, each with unique chemical and physical identities
23.4 Sorting Out Organic Compounds
Carbon compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen atoms
Organic compounds in which some or all of the hydrogen atoms have been replaced by other atoms are consider derivatives of hydrocarbons
Carbon backbone (skeleton)
Longest chain in a hydrocarbon molecule (e.g.)
Simple molecules are called straight –chain or unbranched hydrocarbons(eg)
more complex hydrocarbons may be composed of several carbon chains that cross, these are called branched hydrocarbons (eg)
hydrocarbons may contain all single bonds or combinations of single, double and triple bonds
saturated molecules cannot incorporate additional molecules into their structure, and entirely made up of single carbon-carbon bonds
hydrocarbons containing at least one double pr triple carbon- carbon bond are referred to as unsaturated
Straight ( or branched) chain, saturated compound containing only single bonds, result from fractional distillation (table 23.1 pg. 676)
Relatively low boiling points because of the low degree of intermolecular attraction due to hydrocarbons being generally non-polar
Methane gas (CH4):
Simplest of all alkanes