Aim, objective and Hypothesis
The current study set out to explore the generalisability of counting behaviour and the understanding of the cardinal principle in blind children. To date, research in this area has focused mainly on typically developing children. Some researchers have undertaken studies in the atypical population; however, this is limited to disorders such as Down syndrome (Caycho, Gunn & Siegal, 1991), mental retardation (Baroody, 1986) and severe learning difficulties (Porter, 1998). Therefore, children with visual impairment have not been given much attention in this field of research.
The aim of the first experiment will be to observe whether children are able to count ...view middle of the document...
Each group will be further sub-divided into three age groups of 3, 4 and 5 years with 15 participants in each subgroup. Typically developing children will be randomly recruited from preschools and schools in the UK, while the assistance of the National Blind Children Society will be solicited for the purpose of recruiting congenitally blind children. The criteria for accepting visually impaired participants will be the absence of any manifestation of mental, psychological or physical impairment other than the participant’s congenital blindness with light perception only or less. The participants will come from similar socio-economic background.
Materials and Design
Two within- subject design experiment will be carried out with the same participants. The first experiment will have three conditions namely, object, basket and sound. The objects used for recognition through manual manipulation will be familiar building blocks; triangles and cubes.
In the object condition, 40x40x40mm size cubes of the same colour will be arranged linearly and glued to a board, with a three centimetre distance from each other. There will be four conditions with a set size of 2, 3, 5 and 6. In other words, on one card board there will be two blocks, on another card board 3 blocks, and so on. Each participant will do one trial of each set size. In the basket condition, children will move 60x40x40mm dimensional triangles of the same colour from a basket to a cardboard box with a hole at the top. There will be four trials each with a set size of 2, 3, 5, and 6. This means that on one trial children will move two triangles from the basket to the cardboard box; on another trial they will move three triangles, and so on. In the sound condition, children will hear a single-chime door bell ring on a tape recorder. There will be four trials with the same set sizes used in the two previous conditions. Therefore, on one trial children with hear the single-chime door bell ring two times, on another trial three times, and so on. The second experiment will use the same tape recording as the sound condition, and there will be two trials one for a set size of 3 and another for 6.
Testing will take place at Kingston University in the psychology laboratory away from distractions and noise. The experimenter will spend some time engaging with the children in a play room before taking them to the experimental room. Participants will be given a few minutes to become familiar and comfortable with the experimental room prior to testing. The experiments will be video recorded for the purpose of scoring. Participants will be seated on the opposite side of the experimenter on a small table and they will be introduced to a puppet name Bobby (they will be allowed to touch the puppet). The experimenter will explain that Bobby had forgotten how to count and Bobby will be very pleased if they could help him out. Throughout the procedures, the experimenter will verbalise every action...