The Registered Nurses Association of Ontario (RNAO) (2009) reported, “an estimated two million Canadians have kidney disease or are at risk for it” (p. 17). According to Porth (2011) and the Kidney Foundatoin of Canada (n.d.c), chronic kidney disease (CKD) has several different causes that combined cause a loss in renal function over 3 months or more, resulting in kidney failure, and its progression is classified into five stages. The two main causes for CKD are diabetes and hypertension (HTN) (National Kidney Foundation, 2012a). Practical nurses caring for adults with chronic kidney disease must consider the importance to their practices and to the adults and their families and the care and education needed to assist the adult and family.
According to Koufaki and Kouidi (2010), the population of adults diagnosed with CKD is increasing rapidly because of the high prevalence of diabetes and in today’s society. Because of the rise in the risk factors, knowledge in prevention and care is important for nurses, adults, and their families who have or are at risk for CKD. This mean that many Canadians are at risk for or have CKD; therefore is a larger demand for care for adults with the disease. The care for adults with CKD can be demanding not just for them, but also for their families, nurses, and other members of the health care team. Understanding how to provide adequate care is important for nurses and family members to understand in order improve living for adults living with CKD.
Because of there is no cure for CKD, it is important for practical nurses to have the knowledge to provide proper care to adults with CKD because by providing adequate care and teaching it may be possible to prolong or stop the progression to higher stages (RNAO, 2009). Doss, DePascal, and Hadley (2011) stated the importance of the nurse encouraging patient empowerment. According to the relationship standard set by the College of Nurses of Ontario (CNO) (2002), a therapeutic nurse-client relationship should be focused on providing care that not only puts the client’s needs first, but also cares for the client’s family. The CNO (2006) defines client centered care as the holistic view of the person and administering care that “ensures that all professional behaviors and actions meet the therapeutic needs of the client” (p. 6). Because of this standard, nurses are obligated to include the client in making decisions about his/her own treatments because the client is the best source since he/she knows what is best for him/her (CNO, 2006). The RNAO’s (2009) best practice guidelines for caring for adults with CKD recommend including the client in making decisions because it gives them a sense of control increases the chance of prolonging progression, increases independence, etc.
According to the National Kidney Foundation (2012a), everyone is at risk for CKD. Although certain populations of people, diabetics and people with HTN, are at a higher risk, a person may be...