Carry Ripple Adder Essay

4604 words - 18 pages

ABSTRACTCarry Ripple AdderThere are many different logic designs to implement a given digital circuit. Speed, cost, power efficiency, and many more, are all aspects that an IC designer needs to look at. Depending on the project requirements, one logic design would be preferable to choose over others. One of the most basic operations in logic is addition. The carry- ripple adder does exactly that. In this project, the CMOS implementation of this circuit is compared to the double-pass transistor implementation of it. HSPICE is used to simulate both circuits. Transient response and power dissipation of both circuits are obtained from the simulations. As expected, DPL circuit is faster than CMOS, but the latter is more power efficient than DPL design. Therefore if only speed of circuit is concerned, we would choose the DPL version. On the other hand if power efficiency is the main concern, CMOS would be a better option.Key Words: Full Adder, CMOS, DPL, HSpice.2. IntroductionA two-bit carry-ripple adder (CRA) comprises of two full adder connected (cascaded) by one wire. Thus, the two-bit CRA has six inputs and two outputs: the inputs A1, B1, A2 B2, Ci1, & Ci2, as well as the outputs Co1, S1, Co2, & S2. The inputs will vary depending on the logic condition. However for each adder, the combination of two one-bit inputs, are restricted to 4 possibilities. This in turn constrains the actual value of the output. Also, it is important to note that for the CRA the Ci1 is hardwired to ground.Figure 1: two-bit Carry-Ripple AdderThe two-bit carry ripple adder circuit implemented for this project has many practical uses as the underlying element for more complex digital circuitry. In fact, one must not overlook the most basic operations of the computer; it has been applied from the ENIAC to the latest PCs to calculators. All digital "computers" perform various operations with the use of binary inputs. Carry-Ripple adders can also assist in multiplication: since multiplication can be replaced by 'shift & add' operations. That is why adders are one of the most basic and important building blocks used in digital signal processing and microprocessors. 3. ObjectivesThe objective of this project is to compare a CMOS two-bit carry-ripple adder to a double pass-transistor (DPL) logic two-bit carry-ripple adder. HSPICE would be used to implement both cases. Using the simulation results, we will perform an in depth transient analysis of both implementations and compare the results. Also, we will compare other characteristic of the two circuits such as power dissipation of the circuits. 4. Detailed Operation of the Adder CircuitThe first concept in understanding the two-bit carry-ripple adder is to begin with simply adding two single bits together and obtaining an output. The first step in designing the circuit is to first look at all of the logical combinations. As mentioned, the number of inputs applied constrains the possibilities of the...

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