Caso De Detergente Essay

6137 words - 25 pages


Cuaderno FIRP S332A 1 Detergentes
Para lograr su papel limpiador, un detergente debe producir numerosos fenómenos, los cuales dependen en general del tipo de sustrato, del tipo de sucio y de las condiciones. Así se han diseñado fórmulas especificas capaces de actuar con eficiencia en casos particulares, y fórmulas generales con resultados más o menos satisfactorios en la mayoría de los casos.
En estas formulaciones entran un gran número de componentes cuyos papeles se complementan uno a otro, a menudo con un efecto de sinergía, es decir un resultado mejor que la suma de los efectos independientes de cada uno de los componentes.
A continuación se mencionan los diferentes tipos de componentes que se encuentran en formulaciones detergentes y el papel que juegan. 1.1. Surfactantes
Los surfactantes aniónicos (sulfonatos, ester-sulfatos, jabones) y noiónicos (alcoholes o fenoles etoxilados) actúan como agentes de mojabilidad del sustrato, rebajan la tensión interfacial, se adsorben y cambian el potencial superficial, emulsionan el sucio liquido, y dispersan las partículas sólidas.
En algunas aplicaciones especiales se usan las propiedades bactericidas de los surfactantes catiónicos, tales como en formulaciones desinfectantes, en los cuales están a menudo asociados con surfactantes noiónicos. Los surfactantes anfóteros no se usan generalmente como surfactantes únicos en formulaciones detergentes por su alto costo, sino como aditivos dispersantes de jabones de calcio (Lime soap dispersing agents - LSDA - en inglés). 1.2. Agentes secuestrantes mejoradores (Builders)
Estos agentes tienen como propósito mejorar la acción limpiadora del surfactante
mediante varios efectos. Su principal acción es secuestrar a los cationes divalentes del agua dura (calcio, magnesio) para evitar la interacción de estos iones con los surfactantes. La eliminación se hace en forma de solubilización (quelato), precipitación, o intercambio jónico.
Otra de las acciones de los mejoradores es mantener el pH de la solución detergente a un valor alcalino, neutralizar los ácidos grasos libres y formar jabones in-situ en la interfase. También aumentan el potencial (negativo) de superficie de los textiles y de los sucios y por tanto inhiben la redeposición.
Existen dos tipos de agentes mejoradores: los inorgánicos y los orgánicos. Los más...

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