Catalysts Essay

1163 words - 5 pages

Catalysts speed up the rate of reaction and remain chemically unchanged or being used up in the process, and are widely used in industry. Enzymes are biological catalysts made up of proteins, and can be used a lot in industry since they operate best close to room temperature and pressure which can be maintained in industrial processes. Catalysts will speed up rate of reaction and can also be used to change properties of a product to increase it’s usefulness – it can turn light, bendy poly(ethene) into a more dense and less flexible material with a higher melting point.
An example of an enzyme used as a catalyst is during the production of ethanol. Ethanol is the alcohol people drink and is also used as a fuel, solvents and as a feedstock for other processes. Fermentation uses the enzyme zymase which is an enzyme used in fermentation of the breakdown of sugar into ethanol and carbon dioxide. Zymase is naturally occurring tin yeast when making alcohol as it breaks down sugars into ethanol with carbon dioxide as a by-product:

This is efficient under controlled conditions such as temperature (30˚C). Although the method of making ethanol is renewable since sugar beets and yeast grow fast, the reaction has low atom economy and the enzyme gets killed from the ethanol produced. However, the industrial production of ethanol is also a good example of why Le Chatalier’s principle is important in real life as ethanol is produced by a reversible reaction between ethene and steam.
Iron is used as a catalyst in the Haber process – the reversible production of ammonia, which combines hydrogen and nitrogen. Containing potassium hydroxide as a promoter to increase it’s efficiency, the use of iron does not make it necessary for the use excess heat energy needed to raise the temperature high enough to make the reaction happen quick enough, which would raise fuel bills and also result in less amount of ammonia reduced. Iron is an efficient catalyst in the production of ammonia as it increases output of the desired product and, like all catalysts, does not get used up in the reaction. Catalysts also aid in reducing the number of steps a product can be made, for example, the painkiller ibuprofen traditionally takes 6 steps with an atom economy of 32%. Using catalysts during it’s production, only 3 steps are taken resulting in an atom economy of 77%.
Another use of catalysts in industrial methods is making esters. Esters are a compound made from carboxylic acids and alcohol, resulting in artificial fragrances found in cosmetics. The reaction forming esters is reversible so some of the ester formed will react with water and reform the carboxylic acid and alcohol. To make ethyl Ethanoate, for example, concentrated sulphuric acid (the catalyst) is used to accelerate the speed of reaction, done during the refluxing stage.
Human activity is changing the atmosphere by adding small amounts of pollutants into the atmosphere from sources such as particulates and...

Find Another Essay On Catalysts

Biological Processes and Catalysts for the Process of Nitrogen Fixation

2025 words - 8 pages dinitrogen with dihydrogen in the gas phase with a heterogeneous catalyst under high pressure and temperature. An average of 80 x 109 kg of ammonia is produced each year through this process. The reaction is thermodynamically feasible for large scale manufacture, but it is necessary to find active catalysts that can convert dinitrogen to ammonia under low pressures and temperatures for more practical uses.16 The initial findings of

Observing Protein and Non-protein Catalysts Under Different Conditions

1175 words - 5 pages Polypeptides, better known as proteins, carry out nearly all of a cell's functions. A protein is made up of at least one or more amino acid polymers. The necessity of proteins for life is unequivocal, not only do they help to form the structures of cells but they act as enzymes in reactions of the body1.Enzymes are biological catalysts that lower the amount of activation energy needed in carrying out biochemical reactions1. Enzymes are

Three Main Catalysts that Brought the U.S. Into World War II

2628 words - 11 pages Three Main Catalysts that Brought the U.S. Into World War IIThroughout time scholars have examined human history and many events come to mind. While many of these events have good explanations or just reasons why they occurred, there are a handful of events that had no rhyme or reason, and these events will continue to baffle scholars for centuries to come. There is one event that continues to stand out when considering the events of the 1900's

Political Catalysts of the Great Witch hunts of Early Modern Europe.

4106 words - 16 pages Political Catalysts of the Great Witch Hunt in Early Modern EuropeWitchcraft was an almost universally held belief during the early modern period, and the 'crime' of witchcraft was responsible for the prosecution and execution of thousands of individuals - mainly women - in the period 1450 to 1750. Although certain rational thinkers firmly proclaimed their disbelief (for example, Cyrano de Bergerac, 1619-1655, in his Letter against Witches: No

Catalysts of the Industrial Revolution

571 words - 2 pages The Industrial Revolution was the major advancement of technology in the late 18th and early 19th century that began in Britain and spread to America.The national and federal government helped the United States grow into a self reliant nation with improvements in transportation, technology, manufacturing and the growth of the population. American had an economy based on manual labour which was replaced by one dominated by industry and the

The Catalysts of The French Revolution

955 words - 4 pages Nationalism creates a sense of identity among individuals and countries. As citizens unite with a common desire, the pride created can topple even the most controlling of regimes. During the French revolution in the late 1700’s, French nationalism rose to an all time high. Unfortunately the death and destruction was an irrefutable consequences. During the late 1700’s the biggest events that happen to allow the French revolution to build are the

Anomie and Alienation: Catalysts for Society's Disintegration by PJ

1436 words - 6 pages Society's evolution into a modern arena brought on numerous changes. Emile Durkheim believed that this shift to modernity triggered a breakdown in social solidarity. Anomie, or normlessness, was a product of this rapid change and breakdown. He spoke of this state of anomie leading to the individual succumbing to a lack of social rules and regulations for life and taking his or her life. Karl Marx believed that as the world gets more immersed in a

One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest and Fahrenheit 451. protagonists serve as catalysts in setting characters free by pulling them out of hiding and leading them to their own recognition

1608 words - 6 pages lives. With a little guidance form others these men are able to see the world for what it really is. In these two novels the protagonists Randle McMurphy and Clarisse McClellan serve as catalysts in setting characters free by pulling them out of hiding and leading them to their own recognition of what the world really is or what it should be.Chief Broom is hiding deep in his past memories, deep in the "fog." He believes that Nurse Ratched (the


1822 words - 7 pages BACKGROUND/RATIONALE OF THE STUDYPoverty entails more than the lack of income and productive resources to ensure sustainable livelihoods. Its manifestations include hunger and malnutrition, limited access to education and other basic services, social discrimination and exclusion as well as the lack of participation in decision-making. Various social groups bear disproportionate burden of poverty.A social perspective on development requires

Reactive Organotransition Metal Complexes Used In

3931 words - 16 pages expected to grow by 50% by 2005.1 The conventional heterogeneous catalysts on which this industry is based have made great improvements in selectivity and efficiency since their development. Traditional heterogeneous Ziegler-Natta catalyst polymerize olefins on dislocations and edges of TiCl3 crystals resulting in many different types of active sites. As a result, the polymer products from these systems have a typically broad molecular weight

Role of Catalyists in Industry

996 words - 4 pages Pleased with this - enjoy! Excellent - worthy of high gradeOXFORD AND CAMBRIDGE SCHOOLS EXAMINATION BOARD.General Certificate Examination - Advanced LevelChemistry (Salters') - Paper 3 mock.ROBERT TAYLOR U6JW.THE ROLE CATALYSTS IN CHEMICAL REACTIONS, THEIR IMPORTANCE IN INDUSTRY,PROBLEMS AND NEW DEVELOPMENTS.A Catalyst is a substance that alters the rate of a reaction.The catalyst remains unchanged at the end of the reaction. The processis

Similar Essays

Catalysts In Industries Essay

745 words - 3 pages A catalyst is a substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction by lowering the activation energy without itself undergoing any change. Catalysts make it easier for the reactions to go to the products side, it makes it go a lot faster. Some reactants don't have enough energy to make it over the uncatalyzed reaction pathway, so when a catalyst makes a new reaction pathway more reactants go to the products side, with out all the

Lab: Enzymes – Protein Catalysts Essay

922 words - 4 pages Lab: Enzymes – Protein Catalysts Abstract: Enzymes are catalysts therefore we can state that they work to start a reaction or speed it up. The chemical transformed due to the enzyme (catalase) is known as the substrate. In this lab the chemical used was hydrogen peroxide because it can be broken down by catalase. The substrate in this lab would be hydrogen peroxide and the enzymes used will be catalase which is found in both potatoes and

Alternate Catalysts For Organic Reactions And Synthesis

1286 words - 5 pages Alternate Catalysts for Organic Reactions and SynthesisIntroductionThe study is based on the principles of green chemistry that can be considered as the main notions regarding the importance of the responsibility to the environment in different forms and along with the issues related to Chemistry and compositions of different organic systems. Due to the two fold importance of these components of green chemistry, it is vital to take into

The Role Catalysts In Chemical Reactions, Their Importance In Industry

946 words - 4 pages The Role Catalysts In Chemical Reactions, Their Importance In Industry, Problems and New Developments OXFORD AND CAMBRIDGE SCHOOLS EXAMINATION BOARD. General Certificate Examination - Advanced Level Chemistry (Salters') - Paper 3 mock. ROBERT TAYLOR U6JW. A Catalyst is a substance that alters the rate of a reaction. The catalyst remains unchanged at the end of the reaction. The process is called catalysis. In this report I aim going to