Soil covers much of the land on Earth. Soils are used to plant trees as well as a foundation in building houses and skyscrapers. Basically, soil is defined as zone of the Earth’s crust that biologically active, which made up of minerals, organic material, water and air (Richter & Markewitz, 2010). It is very important element in the environment as it provides critical ecosystem services for life (Brady & Weil, 2008). In general, soils are classified into two major categories which are sedentary soils and transported soils. (refer to Figure 1 in Appendix 1).
The first type of soil is sedentary soils. These soils are also known as the residual soil, which occur on top of parent rock. In other ...view middle of the document...
16). However, when there is waterlogged, organic matter will accumulate like peat which transforms it into organic types of soil and known as ‘cumulose soil’ which incorporate in the class of sedentary soil. Cumulose denotes something that has mounted up.
Transported soils are the second type of the soils. Basically transported soils are induced due to transporting agents such as glacial ice, water and wind. These forces have influence the production of soil deposition in various ways (Arthur, 2010). Other than that, the transporting agents place the soil far away from the original place. The transported soils will get deposited when velocity decrease. During transporting processes, particle shape, size and texture had been highly changed. Typical characteristics for transported soils are large, very smooth and fines individual grains. However, unlike the sedentary soil described earlier, transported soils are sub-categorised into three distinct groups. These include alluvial soils, glacial soils, and aeolian soils. The formation of these soils occurs due to transporting agency and the place of deposition (Dharm, 2013).
Alluvial soil is one examples of transported soil. This soil is being transported by rivers and streams when their velocities slow. The decreasing current flow cannot afford the weight of the suspended soil. Therefore, it is deposited near the riverbed and forming delta. Alluvial soil is very productive, good for crops as well as sustains vegetation. In addition, alluvial soils differ in mineral and chemical content according to where it is located. Volcanic pumice in the western part of Mexico’s Nayarit state is one of the examples of alluvial soils (Gamacastro, 2000). Brady and Weil (2008) stated that the colour of alluvial soils is dark brown to brown loamy sand to fine sandy loam with weak structure. Its pH is ranging from 6.0 to 8.0.
Another type of transported soils is glacial soils. Unlike alluvial soils, glacial soils are transported and deposited by glaciers, which known as glacial till. Composition of glacial till is fine particles, stones, and huge boulders. Glacial soil is approximately 40 feet thick. The colour of glacial till is blue clay. The deposition of this soil occurs during the aftermath of glacial advancement which is about 10,000 years ago. The advancement of glacier from Canada described well about glacial soils. A glacier with thickness about one mile had moved from Canada to northern United State. During the movement, ground rocks and loose materials from hills had mixed with the ice. (Robert & Jack, 1955). In fact, glacial soil has a very low permeability and beneficial for construction of the landfill liner and cover systems (Hannu, 1999). Due to this low permeability, water movement is retards.
Besides that, aeolian...