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Causes, Prevention, And Treatment Methods Of Cervical Cancer

2168 words - 9 pages

The purpose of this research paper is to examine the details of cervical cancer pertaining to the most prevalent types of cervical cancer, the progression of the disease, and treatment methods proven most effective through research studies. Cervical cancer is the mutation of a female’s cervical cells and is separated into four stages of progression (stages I through IV). The contraction of cervical cancer has been attributed to prior contraction of a strain of human papillomavirus, or HPV, primarily strains HPV-16 and HPV-18. The evolution of an HPV infection into cervical cancer can also be affected by a woman’s genetic predisposition; a research study done in the United Kingdom concluded ...view middle of the document...

In 2008, 530,000 new cases of cervical cancer were reported, and it resulted in the deaths of about 275,000 women (“Cervical Cancer”). After numerous scientific studies, it has been shown that there are many causes and risk factors of cervical cancer, including a genetic predisposition and the contraction of certain types of HPVs (Human Papillomavirus). Tests have been developed to detect cervical cancer as early as possible, including the Pap smear and HPV testing. Various prevention and treatment options have been developed, although there is no cure. Cervical cancer is a rare, yet fatal disease that affects a female mammal’s cervix and is characterized by four stages of progression; it has been evaluated to be caused by risk factors such as the contraction of human papilloma virus (HPV) and can be prevented through methods such as vaccination for HPV.
Cervical cancer is characterized by the uncontrollable growth of cells in a female mammal’s cervix, the lower portion of a female’s uterus, and most women with cervical cancer contract two types: squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Squamous cell carcinoma, in reference to cervical cancer, is cancer that develops in the surface cells of the exocervix; it accounts for approximately 80% to 90% of cervical cancer ("What Is Cervical Cancer?"). Adenocarcinoma originates in the glandular cells of the endocervix that produce mucus; while the adenocarcinoma type of cervical cancer is overall less common than squamous cell carcinomas, it has become more common within the past 20-30 years (What Is Cervical Cancer?, Pap and HPV Testing).
Cervical cancer most often begins as pre-cancerous changes in normal cells, and it develops into cancer over time; doctors have described the changes with terms such as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL), and dysplasia (What is Cervical Cancer?). Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia is the stage in which abnormal cells appear on the surface of the cervix (Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia). Squamous intraepithelial lesion is the general term used to delineate the “abnormal growth of squamous cells on the surface of the cervix” (Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion). Dysplasia is the term for seemingly abnormal cells that are not cancerous (Dysplasia). The earliest stage of the cancer is stage 0, which is when the CIS (carcinoma in situ) cells, or the cancerous cells, are located on the surface of the cervix only; CIS cells have been considered by many doctors to be in a precancerous stage rather than a cancer stage (Treatment Options for Cervical Cancer by Stage). Stage 1 of cervical cancer has been divided into two substages, IA and IB. Stage IA was further divided into two substages, stage IA1 and stage IA2, which both entail that the cancer has not spread to nearby lymph nodes in the patient’s body. Stage IA1, or the first substage of stage IA, consists of a cancerous lesion that is less than 3 mm deep into the cervical...

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