Cell Transport Essay

607 words - 3 pages

Cells get things they need inside themselves by transport across their cell membrane. Three types of transport are osmosis, facilitated diffusion, and endocytosis/exocytosis.Osmosis is how cells obtain water, which is what cells are mostly made of. Osmosis is the net movement of water molecules across the cell membrane from high concentration to low concentration or with the gradient. This method doesn’t require energy. Water molecules are extremely tiny; they are only made up of three atoms, which is why they easily pass through the cells semi permeable membrane. They slip right between the membranes phospholipid bi-layer. Osmosis is driven by solute concentrations on the outside of the cell as well as the inside of the cell. Water molecules move from areas of high concentration to low concentration, so it will move ...view middle of the document...

If a cell is hypotonic to the solution it is in the water will flow out. This means that the solution outside the cell had a high solute concentration. Osmosis is very important for all cells; it is how cells obtain most of their water. In plant cells, osmosis can cause the cell to swell, the cell wall restricts its growth. This causes the cell to become hard and rigid which makes the plant stand up tall.Facilitated diffusion is another method cells use to obtain things it needs. Facilitated diffusion is used when the cell needs things that can't go through the phospholipid bi-layer due to their size or charge. Facilitated diffusion goes with the gradient and doesn’t require energy. Facilitated diffusion uses proteins, called transport proteins, in the cell membrane to carry these particles across. Some of the particles that are transported using this method are glucose, sodium ions and chloride ions. One type of protein used is a channel protein which ions flow through. There channels are gated, which means they open and close to control the flow of ions. Other proteins change shape to allow particles through.Endocytosis and exocytosis are types of transport that require ATP. Endocytosis is the taking in of large substances by the cell. It pinches off a piece of the cell membrane creating a vesicle within the cell. There are several types of this transport. Pinocytosis is a kind of endocytosis that takes in large amounts of water. Phagocytosis is the taking in of large amounts of solids, such as an entire other cell as white blood cells do when they ingest a bacteria. Exocytosis is the opposite of endocytosis. It expels large amounts of substances. The Golgi apparatus takes the materials, such as waste products, places them in a vesicle which is released from the cell membrane. The unwanted products are expelled from the cell.wikipedia.comliving biology text book

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