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Cells Essay

1786 words - 8 pages

Plants in a jungle, bugs in a garden, shrimp in the sea, and lions in the wild, all of these living things are made up of many cells. Several of living things are made up of many cells that work together. There are some living things that only have a single cell like protozoa and bacteria. Cells are very small and can only be seen through a microscope. All cells have different functional roles inside a living a thing. For example nerve cells have lengthy and slender extensions that help send signals through the living thing.
No matter how different cells can be they all have a similar role of keeping what is supposed to be outside out , and they what is supposed to be inside in. Cells are enclosed by a complex called the cell membrane. A cell membrane is also known as a plasma membrane. The purpose of a cell membrane is to be a barrier between a cell's external and internal environments. All cells are composed of organic molecules such as lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids. These organic molecules are very important to a cell's functions.
Lipids are another form of fat molecules that are components of a cell membrane. Proteins are organic molecules that are important in all living things. Proteins that are called enzymes make cellular molecules into other forms that can help a cell take out waste, help build support structures, or help the cell meet the energy that it needs. Carbohydrates are another important organic molecule that is the sugars and starches in a cell. Nucleic acids are molecules that assist to express a cell's genetic code. Nucleic acids have two different classes called deoxyribonucleic acids also known as DNA and ribonucleic acids also known as RNA.
A cell is made up 70 percent of water and the other 30 percent of the cell is made up of functional and structural molecules. The two major categories that cells are placed in are eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Prokaryotic cells are different from eukaryotic cells because prokaryotic cells lack a nucleus and eukaryotic cells have a nucleus. A prokaryote is when the DNA in a cell is not separated from the cytoplasm. Some examples of prokaryotes are archaea and bacteria, which are single cells. An eukaryote is when the DNA is separated off into its own membrane bound room. Although, cells are tiny they can evolve in many different shapes and sizes.
All plants are made up of different plant cells. Plant cells are considered eukaryotic cells they have a nucleus. Inside a plant cell the DNA is located inside the nucleus. The nucleus is basically a headquarters for a eukaryotic cell. It also stores the genetic information for a cell. Organelles are also located inside plant cells. They have important jobs inside the cell they produce energy for the plant cell and they also produce enzymes and hormone.
A plant cell has a cell wall which surrounds the plasma membrane. A cell wall is made up of lignin and cellulose they are very tough and rough compounds. Lignin and...

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