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Cellular Reproduction Essay

2404 words - 10 pages

Cellular Reproduction

Cellular Reproduction is the process by which all living things
produce new organisms similar or identical to themselves. This is
essential in that if a species were not able to reproduce, that
species would quickly become extinct. Always, reproduction consists of
a basic pattern: the conversion by a parent organism of raw materials
into offspring or cells that will later develop into offspring.
(Encarta, 2) In almost all animal organisms, reproduction occurs
during or after the period of maximum growth. (Fichter, 16). But in
Plants, which continue to grow through out their lifetime, therefore
making the process more complex. Plants' reproduction is usually
caused by a stimulant, mostly environmental or growth factors. The
reproductive process, whether asexual or sexual always involves an
exchange in hereditary material from the parent(s) so that the new
organism may also be able to reproduce. Reproductive processes can be
categorized in many diffrent ways although the most common is to put
them into either asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction. Asexual
reproduction is the process by which a single organism gives rise to
two or more daughter cells. Most single celled organisms reproduce by
the asexual process known as fission, which is commonly called
mitosis. Fission (or Mitosis) is the division of one cell into two
identical daughter cells. Interphase, the first phase of the cell
cycle and also the phase before mitosis, starts as soon as the cell is
born. Interphase is broken up into three phases, G1, S, and G2.

During the G1 phase, the cell increases in mass except for the chromosomes,
which stay the same, uncoiled. Protein synthesis is also occurring
rapidly in this phase. If a cell doesn't divide further, it remains
permanently in the G1 phase. Next is the S phase, in which the mass of
the cell continues to increase, and DNA is duplicated, and then the
chromosomes divide to form identical sister chromatids attached by a
centromere. (Harold, 45). During the G2 phase of Interphase, the cell
becomes double its mass at birth, the chromosomes begin to shorten and
coil, and the centrioles appear, the cell is now ready to enter into
mitosis. In the first and longest phase of mitosis, prophase, the
chromosomes become visible and the centrioles split in half and then
move to opposite sides of the cell. At this point chromosomes have
formed into sister chromatids separated by a structure called a
centromere. Spindle fibers are barely visible. This phase takes fifty
to sixty percent of the time of mitosis. (Biggs, 214) During
metaphase, the short second phase of mitosis, the sister chromatids
line up along the equator of the cell. Each sister chromatid has its
own spindle fiber. Next comes the third phase of mitosis, Anaphase, in
which the centromeres break in half, causing each of the daughter
chromatids to start to be pulled to different poles of the cell by
means of spindle...

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