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Cellulose Pre Treatment: Cellulose Binding Domain (Cbd)

855 words - 4 pages

CELLULOSE BINDING DOMAIN (CBD)
Among the different cellulases, some prefer amorphous substrates whereas others are also able to attack the highly ordered, crystalline cellulose. Comparative studies of many different cellulases have been used to identify common features enabling the enzyme to hydrolyze cellulose crystals (Wilson et al., 1985; Davies and Henrissat, 1995).
Tight adsorption with cellulose is linked with good catalytic activity (Klyosov, 1990). Most cellulases that are effective against crystalline cellulose share a modular structure composed of a catalytic domain linked to a distinct cellulose-binding domain (Tomme et al., 1995b). The overall binding efficiency of the enzyme (of both fungal and bacterial origin) is greatly enhanced by the presence of the CBD and the enhanced binding clearly correlates with better activity towards insoluble cellulose (van Tilbeurgh et al., 1986; Tomme et al., 1988; Gilkes et al., 1988; Reinikainen et al., 1992, 1995; Ståhlberg et al., 1993 Kruus et al., 1995). Single point mutations of the CBD of T. reesei CBH I have been shown to produce mutants with gradually descending affinities and subsequently decreased activities toward crystalline cellulose (Reinikainen et al., 1995). Despite their apparent importance in crystalline cellulose degradation we still lack a decisive answer as to how the CBD-s work as a part of hydrolytic enzymes (Linder and Teeri, 1997). It is now well established that the removal of the CBD has little influence on activity of cellulases toward soluble substrates and amorphous cellulose. It has been suggested that the CBD enhances the enzymatic activity of cellulase merely by increasing the effective enzyme concentration at the substrate surface (Ståhlberg et al., 1991) or possibly by promoting the solubilisation of single glucan chains off the cellulose surface (Knowles et al., 1987; Teeri et al., 1987; Reinikainen et al., 1995; Tormo et al., 1996). At the same time, the binding via CBD can also lead to a population of non-productively bound enzymes (Ståhlberg et al., 1991; Srisodsuk et al., 1993). Recently, it was shown that CBDs can promote the enzyme activity toward different regions in crystalline cellulose, thus determining the substrate- or more precisely, sub-substrate specificity (Carrard et al., 2000). However, a targeting function alone does not seem likely as a general answer concerning the CBD function in all different cellulases. This is because the cellulase catalytic domains have very different modes of action and roles in the total hydrolysis process, and the properties of their respective CBDs must have been optimized according to these different demands (Couthino et al., 1992; Irwin et...

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