1. Machines replaced people in methods of production.
2. The factory replaced the home as the center of production.
3. The standard of living grew higher as more goods were produced.
4. Factory jobs tended to bore workers. Workers did the same thing every day and often lost
or never developed a sense of pride in their work.
5. Workers grew dependent on owners. Owners could hire and fire workers for any reason.
6. Working conditions and wages were horrible.
7. Workers formed labor unions, an association of workers that pushed for benefits and
reform. This was not an easy thing to do because labor unions were usually
outlawed by the government. Many riots took place between striking union workers
and the police.
8. Workers carried out strikes against owners. Workers refused to work until the owners met
their demands. Strikes often turned into bloody battles.
9. Trade between countries increased.
1. The standard of living in the industrial countries grew higher and higher. Examples
include Great Britain, the United States, and Germany.
2. Many farmers moved to cities to get jobs in factories. Consequently, cities grew at a fast
pace. In the United States, for example, many rural people (those who lived in the
countryside) from the South moved to cities in the North. In addition, millions of
immigrants came to the United States in search of jobs.
3. As cities grew, problems increased. Some problems included over-crowding, lack of
housing, poor sanitary conditions, disease, and poverty? slums.
4. Women and children entered the work force.
1. The land-owning class (aristocrats) was replaced by the industrial class (capitalists) as
the leaders of governments.
2. A laissez-faire policy took the place of mercantilism. Laissez-faire meant free trade
without interference from the government. Mercantilism, or the government policy of
controlling overseas markets, meant that nations were strengthened by government
control of its economic interests.
3. The right to vote for both men and women was expanded.
4. The industrialized or developed countries quickly became the strongest powers of the
world. Countries were either thought of as developed or underdeveloped. By the end
of the 19th century, the United States replaced Great Britain as the leading industrial
nation in the world. In the 20th century, the Industrial Revolution would spread to
almost every part of the world.
5. New types of economic systems developed. For example, capitalism expanded in the
United States; socialism in Great Britain and France; and communism in the Soviet
6. As the Industrial Revolution expanded, industrial nations sought new markets for their
goods in other parts of the world. Capitalist nations became imperialist nations,
extending their rule over other countries or territories, causing problems which led
directly to World War I.