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# Chapter 1: Soil Voids Essay

996 words - 4 pages

CHAPTER 1

Introduction
Background
Soil is the common material that being used as base or foundation for every construction and it is needed to be compact first. This is because the soil that use contains high air voids. Air voids occur when there is air trapped between soil particles. High air void content in soil will decrease the soil strength and the soil is categorising as the loose soil. To remove air voids, mechanical energy is required and indirectly it will also cause changes in the water content. Compaction is where the process of turning the soil more dense. It is where the soil particles are press together to a closer state while expelling the air from the soil in process. Compaction will improve the engineering properties of soil. This is because the soil that compress will have a higher strength due to the position of the particles more closely. In addition, compressibility and permeability of the soil will become lower.

Figure 1:
The soil characteristic such as the density and the unit weight will be increase due to the expulsion of the air during the compaction process. The density and unit weight terms are often used mistakenly. The density is referring to the amount of mass per unit of volume ( kg⁄m^3 ) and the symbol of density is ρ. While on the other hand, the unit weight is referring to the weight per unit of volume (kN⁄m^3 ) and the symbol for unit weight is γ.

Figure 2:
Every soil has different characteristic with respect to the maximum density and optimum moisture. Soil types are commonly determined by grain size. Hence, it can be classified by conducting the sieve analysis test to determine the particle size of soil passing through the series of sieve to screen or separate different size of grain. The material to be testing is the cohesionless soil (sand). Cohesionless soils are well known for their water-draining properties.

Sand is commonly divided into five categories based on its size:
Very fine sand : 0.0625mm to 0.125mm
Fine sand : 0.125mm to 0.25mm
Medium sand : 0.25mm to 0.5mm
Coarse sand : 0.5mm to 1.0mm
Very coarse sand : 1.0mm to 2.0mm

Grain shape
Sand grain is determined in term of angularity and spherical shape. It varies from the well-rounded to rounded, sub-rounded, sub-angular, angular and very angular. Sand which is rounded with medium to high spherical shape gives the good flow ability and permeability.
While sand which is more angular and lower spherical shape have lower packing density and poor in flow ability. It requires higher binding addition.

Scope Of The Study

The scope of study is to do the various methods of sand compaction test so that the results outcome will determine which of these methods make the proper way of sand compacting. In the soil laboratory subject, the common method used to for the soil compaction is the standard proctor test, but in this study there is enhancement for the method to be...

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