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Chapter 9 Us History Study Guide

1718 words - 7 pages

Eddie BjarkoAPUSH Chap 9 Study GuideNovember 2, 2014Economic Transformation 1820-1860The American Industrial RevolutionBritish textile manufacturers were particularly worried about American competition; Britain prohibited the export of textile machinery and the emigration of mechanics that knew how to build it, but many mechanics disguised themselves as ordinary laborers and set sail. Samuel Slater brought his advanced cotton spinner design to America and when he opened his factory in 1790 it marked the advent of the American Industrial Revolution. British companies were more established, had less expensive shipping rates, lower interest rates, and cheaper labor whereas America had an abundance of natural resources. The American producers had two strategies to counter the British upper hand. First, they improved on British designs. Second, they had cheaper laborers. By copying the machines of British textile mills, Francis Cabot Lowell's Boston Manufacturing Company was able to build the Waltham factory, the first American factory to perform all the operations of cloth making under one roof at higher speeds than British mills and with fewer workers, marking a turning point in favor of the American industries. He Boston Manufacturing Company pioneered a labor system that became known as the "Waltham plan," in which the company recruited farmwomen and girls as textile workers who would work for low wages. Shifting the balance further in favor of Americans. Several 1,000s of women were working in these textile mills. Although the environment was oppressive, many of them gained a new sense of freedom and autonomy. By combining improved technology, female labor, and tariff protection, the Boston Manufacturing Company sold textiles at cheaper prices than British companies, so obviously the American textile manufacturers were pretty successful in competing with the British.The Industrial Revolution changed the nature of work and workers' lives. Many American craft workers had developed an "artisan republican ideology," a collective identity based on the principles of liberty and equality. They saw themselves as small-scale producers, equal to one another and free to work for themselves. But as the outwork and factory systems spread, more and more workers took jobs as dependent wage earners. Laborers responded in various ways. Some journeymen formed unions and bargained with their employers, particularly with the hope of setting a ten-hour workday. By the mid-1830s, building-trades workers had won a ten-hour workday from many employers and from the federal government. Artisans whose occupations were threatened by industrialization-shoemakers, printers, and so on-were less successful, and some left their employers and set up specialized shops. Two, formerly traditional artisan, groups resulted from this industrialism. Self-employed craftsmen and wage-earning craftsmen. Under English and American common law, it was illegal for workers to organize...

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