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Characteristic Of Organic Compounds Essay

1276 words - 5 pages

What are organic compounds, you may ask? Well organic compounds are compounds that always contain carbon, or any compound that contains a carbon atom. But some describe organic compounds as any of a large class of chemical compounds in which one or more atoms of carbon are covalently linked to atoms of other elements, most commonly are hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. But there are a few exceptions to this organic rule, which are carbon monoxide, carbonates, carbon dioxide, cyanides, cyanates, carbides, and thyocyanates, which are all considered inorganic. The term organic compound comes from the early notation that organic compounds could only be synthesized in living organisms through vis-vitalis (a life-force).
Furthermore, organic compounds are considered organic because in chemistry, organic means “carbon based”. Any compound that is carbon based is considered organic. That is, an organic compound is any compound whose molecules contain carbon atoms. All living things are made of compounds containing mostly carbon. Organic compounds are important to living, and they are associated with the life processes. The properties of carbon make it the backbone of the organic molecules which form living matter. Organic compounds are important for life and they include small monomers, as well as macromolecules, also called polymers. Some organic molecules even include carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids which are the essentials for life processes.
The chemical reactions that build up organic compounds are called Dehydration Synthesis or Condensation Reaction. Dehydration synthesis is a chemical reaction that builds up molecules by losing water molecules. Organic compounds are formed when polymers combine with monomers, or by “removing water”, which then water is stored in the bonds. The chemical reaction occurs because of the new forming of bonds between monomers.
The chemical reaction that breaks down the organic compounds is called Hydrolysis. Hydrolysis is chemical reaction in which the interaction of a compound with water results in the decomposition of that compound. It separates monomers by adding water, then which energy is released when bonds are broken. This chemical reaction occurs because of the breaking bonds of the monomers.
Carbohydrates
One of the main types of organic compound that is found is carbohydrates (also called saccharides). The name “carbohydrate” comes from the approximate composition: a ratio of 1 carbon to 2 hydrogen’s to 1 oxygen (CH2O). They are composed of rings of 5 or 6 carbons, with alchohol (-OH) groups attached, making most of the compounds to be water-soluble. Carbohydrates are made up of 3 elements; carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.

The buildup of carbohydrates:

Carbohydrates (sugars and starches) are organic molecules that supply energy for cell processes, form plant structures, short-term energy, and storage. Carbohydrates can exist as monosaccharide, disaccharides, or polysaccharides....

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