This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Charles Rennie Mackintosh And Scottish Architecture.

1069 words - 4 pages

In this essay, I will be discussing how Charles Rennie Mackintosh has contributed to Scottish architecture. I will investigate his influences and how he affected architecture in Scotland over his lifetime.
Born on 7th June 1868 in Glasgow, Mackintosh became interested in architecture as a profession from an early age, and, at the age of sixteen secured an apprenticeship with John Hutchison. In order to complete his apprenticeship, he enrolled in the Glasgow School of Art in 1884, where he met Margaret MacDonald, an artist and his future wife. Due to poor health, Mackintosh often spent weekends in the country-side, sometimes travelling with Herbert McNair, a friend who worked at the architect’s firm of Honeyman and Keppie, (where Mackintosh would later become a partner). Mackintosh delighted in drawing from nature, particularly anything with an interesting or striking colour or shape, often returning with samples to draw later in greater detail. Furthermore, from these trips, he came to discover that every leaf and petal was unique, a fact that he often applied in later works. Together with Herbert McNair and his wife Frances MacDonald, (who was Margaret’s sister) Mackintosh and Margaret MacDonald would later form a group known as the ‘Glasgow Four’.
The Four were prominent members of the Glasgow School and were known for their distinctive form of art which combined Celtic motifs and the Symbolist style, and later for being leaders of the Art Nouveau movement in Britain. Their art received mixed reviews and was criticised by some; receiving official disapproval from Walter Crane, a highly prolific writer of the time; However they were appreciatively acclaimed as the ‘Spook School’ by Gleeson White, editor of the artistic publication The Studio. Shortly after this success, Mackintosh was commissioned to design a new building for the Glasgow School of Art. The School of Art was Mackintosh’s first and largest commission, and he was awarded it in 1896. Work on the School of Art began in 1897 and extended until 1899, when it was halted, until it was eventually resumed in 1909 and finished.
While designing the Glasgow School of Art, Lethaby’s Architecture, Mysticism and Myth was to be an important source of principles for Mackintosh, due to its connecting of the Arts and Crafts movement with the Celtic beliefs and Mysticism that greatly interested him. He also put great stock in John Ruskin’s views on materials that iron and glass ‘will never worthily take the place of stone because of this defect, the want of mass.’ For the School of Art, Mackintosh decided to use local granite on three sides and brickwork on the fourth. The building was designed by Mackintosh in the Gothic Revival manner so that the exterior would act as a skin the main structure inside. The north façade on Renfrew Street is dominated by large studio windows and a heavily sculpted main entrance with medieval motifs. The eastern end uses gables, projecting turrets and is set...

Find Another Essay On Charles Rennie Mackintosh and Scottish Architecture.

Art Nouveau and Art Deco essay

2014 words - 9 pages emphasise the pliancy of wood were met with harsh reproach for being too constrained and stultifying. one of the most prominent designers of the art nouveau era was hector Guimard who created pieces of interior of the Castel Beranger as well as many other residential homes and apartment blocks. Also there was Charles Rennie mackintosh who simplified and coloured wood and simplified the designs for tea houses in Glasgow. The wood creations were


559 words - 2 pages decoration.’’(2)This is a comparable in terms of both the movement emergence periods,materials used and appearance. The Baroque and Modern architecture vary emergence periods.’’Baroque architecture 16. and 18.centuries developing and music,art and literature in architecture after acquiring ıts current location is significantly.’’(3)Louis Le Vau,Charles Lebrum,Johann Lucas Von Hildebrandt,Carlo Moderno are some of the architects of the term.In

Medieval Warfare: Stagnant or Flowing?

1744 words - 7 pages will be replaced by infantry soldiers. Several scholars have argued the importance of medieval contributions to the artistry of war. One scholar, Charles Oman, writing at the end of the nineteenth century, argues that the cavalry, which shaped European medieval culture, was easily replaced with the more deadly infantry. Other authors, however, do not agree. Geoffrey Hindley and J. Verbruggen value the highly developed and evolved system in which

Why Parliament diskliked Charles I

540 words - 2 pages unjust, illegal fashion.Charles's biggest mistake was imposing Archbishop Laud's Arminian prayer books on his English and Scottish subjects. Although the English grudgingly accept, the Presbyterian Scots were outraged when Charles tried to make changes in the Scottish church, and many riots broke out in protest. When Charles called up Parliament 1640, aptly called the "Long Parliament," he asked for more money to aid in suppressing the Scots. However, the members of Parliament then expressed their opposition to the Laudian reforms, and demanded that Charles get rid of the Laudian reforms and change the English church back to Anglican.

Presbyterianism in Scotland

729 words - 3 pages 1637.Presbyterianism in Scotland was like a thorn in Charles side. He was the ruler of the three kingdoms, England, Scotland and Ireland, and he wished to rule these three uniformly in government and more importantly religion. Unlike his predecessor James І, Charles lacked in patience and common sense. For when James had tried to reform the Scottish church it had been met with much resistance and it was obvious it would take time for the

Landscape Architecture

1170 words - 5 pages structures that you see today and designs for structures that have been destroyed. Gilbert Laing Meason born July 3, 1769, He was a Scottish man. Gilbert Laing Meason is said “to be the man who invented the term landscape architecture” (“Gilbert Laing Meason”). Gilbert didn’t know his book The Landscape Architecture of the Great Painters of Italy would be read by John Claudius Loudon, said to be "the most prolific garden author of any age (“Gilbert Laing

Wallace's Revolutionary Fight

1185 words - 5 pages William Wallace was born around 1270 in Scotland near Renfrewshire. He is supposedly the second son of Sir Malcolm Wallace. Sir William was a soldier during the Scottish Revolution against England. Wallace, a great fighter and leader soon rose to power in the Scottish uprising. With his Guerilla style assault tactics and his effective sneak attacks, he took advantage of the small English military forces. Wallace's father was of lesser nobility

The Gothic Period

1429 words - 6 pages in the United States and Britain. The most famous building in Britain that used this style of architecture is Westminster Palace. ( This building was built in the late 1800s by Charles Barry. The design for this palace is unique. It’s unique because the architect wanted “to balance the horizontal (which he emphasised with continuous bands of panelling) with the

Genetic and Environmental Factors of Intelligence

4013 words - 16 pages compelling; at the same time there is growing evidence that genetic influence on intelligence is significant and substantial (Eyesenck, 1998; Mackintosh, 1998; Plomin, 1994; Steen, 1996). The purpose of this paper is to explore the question: "How is intelligence influenced by heredity and environment?" What is Intelligence? It is often difficult to remember that intelligence is purely a social construct, and as such is limited to operational

Scotland’s Superman; William Wallace

2360 words - 9 pages “Few traces remain of Scottish hero William Wallace, the medieval knight who fought against English oppression.” (Cohen) The most known facts come from legends surrounding the infamous William Wallace and his short, tragic career saving Scotland. Now a martyr, Sir William Wallace is inspiration to many Scottish families that anything can be done. A compilation of many widely accepted legends is told in Mel Gibson’s BraveHeart. During the time

Essay Charles 1st and Charles 2nd

939 words - 4 pages . Although born in Scotland, Charles had become estranged from his kingdom; not even paying visit until his Scottish coronation in 1633.In 1637 the king ordered the use of a new Prayer Book to be used within Scotland that was almost identical to the English Book of Common Prayer, without consultation with either the Scottish Parliament or KirkThe Irish Rebellion and England's Civil War made Charles loose everything, even his throne. Various disputes

Similar Essays

Architecture And Design: Antonio Gaudi And Charles Rennie Mackintosh

1770 words - 7 pages Throughout this essay I am going to talk about the main works of Antonio Gaudi and Charles Rennie Mackintosh whilst comparing and contrasting them, with singular reference to the respective influences and examples used in their approach to design. Antonio Gaudí, (1852, Reus, Spain—1926, Barcelona) Antonio Gaudi was an outstanding character of Spanish architecture in the nineteenth century and was one of the most original architects of the

Charles Rennie Mackintosh Essay

1392 words - 6 pages Charles Rennie Mackintosh was born on June 7, 1868. He was born and raised in Glasgow, Scotland. Mackintosh was the son of a police superintendent. Charles was an architect, artist, and designer in Scotland. He designed in the post impressionist movement. Mackintosh was considered to be a huge influence on European architecture in his time. Charles was the fourth child out of eleven children. Later in his life, he went to The Glasgow School of

Investigation Into Chair Design Essay

1287 words - 5 pages Investigation into Chair Design For my Investigation into chair designs I choose to investigate how simplistic and basic the chairs have become. From Charles Rennie Mackintosh, who was renowned for his style and applied decoration to Philippe Stark who has taken simplistic to another level. I have investigated how the designers have used applied decoration to enhance the look of their chair, to how functional the pieces are (or in some cases

History And Significance Of The Glasgow School Of Art

1675 words - 7 pages The Glasgow School of Art was built by Charles Rennie Mackintosh from 1897 - 1909 in Glasgow, Scotland.  In 1897, Mackintosh won a competition for the design of the Glasgow Building.  However, it was a difficult piece of land to build on because of the very steep slope.  The front end is located on Renfrew Street while the backside stretched down the steep hill.  The Glasgow School of Art is constructed primarily out of wood