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Chemical Reaction Experiment Using Propane And Iodine

1421 words - 6 pages

Get A Reaction Out Of This!

A chemical reaction occurs when one or more substances change to produce one or more different substances. For example, some evidence that a chemical reaction has occurred is possible changes in energy, release of energy, formation of a new substance, or reduction or increase in temperature. This lab will be conducted in order to create a chemical reaction by changing the reaction rate of a substance. In order to change the reaction rate, a catalyst needs to be added.in this case the catalyst in a hydrogen ion. Iodine and propane will be mixed and then catalyzed by the hydrogen ions, in turn helping to change the rate of the reaction.
Some terms and ...view middle of the document...

The order can result as a fraction, but most commonly results in a whole number. The term k is the rate constant, which measures the rate of the chemical reaction and varies as temperature fluctuates (Holt 2006). "An elementary reaction is a chemical reaction in which one or more of the chemical species react directly to form products in a single reaction step and with a single transition state"(March 2000). Reaction order, found only an experiment, cannot be found through a chemical formula. Instead, the reaction order is found by comparing ratios of rate to concentration to find a reaction order.
Unfortunately, a chemical equation does not show how the reaction actually takes place, so it is written for the overall reaction. A chemical equation is imperative to a lab, because it needs both qualitative and quantitative data. The term equilibria, which means equal, is usedwhen describing steps that have the fastest reactions. Chemical equilibria is completely dependent on temperature, resulting in chemical equilibrium. Chemical equilibrium is when the product and the reactant are both apparent in the concentration, and not changing as time progresses (Blauch 2014). A catalyst is a more commonly used term rather than equilibria, but both are used to speed up the reaction of an experiment. If one step is slower than the others in a sequence of steps it will control the overall reaction rate, this is because a reaction cannot go faster than its slowest step which is the rate determining step. The rate-determining step is the slowest step that has the lowest velocity, which determines the rate of the overall reaction. “An intermediate is a substance that forms in a middle stage of a chemical reaction and is considered a stepping stone between the parent substance and the final product” (Holts 2006). “When the necessary conditions of the reaction no longer function, the intermediates react further and no longer remain in the reaction mixture” (Carey 2000).
For two molecules to react, they must collide violently enough to overcome the mutual repulsion, in order for the electron clouds of the two molecules merge to some extent, which may lead to the creation of new bonds. These collisions only occur when the colliding pair of molecules have a large amount of energy. Only molecules with high kinetic energies are likely to react. “Kinetic energy is the energy of an object that is due to the object’s motion. The minimum energy that a pair of colliding molecules need to have before a chemical change becomes a possibility is called the activation energy of the reaction (Myers, Oldham, Tocci, 2006).”No reaction is possible if the colliding pair has less energy than the activation energy. Without kinetic energy, two molecules cannot change chemically. However, with a combined kinetic energy equal to the activation energy, the molecules reach a state where there is an equal chance of either returning to the initial state without reacting, or of being...

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