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Chemistry Essay

1265 words - 5 pages

LAPORAN PRAKTIKUM KIMIA ELEKTROLISISJudul Praktikum : Elektrolisis Tujuan Praktikum : Mengetahui reaksi redoks yang terjadi pada anoda dan katoda pada proses elektrolisisVariabel :Variabel kontrol : Variabel yang dibuat sama.Contoh : Tabung reaksi, Ukuran tegangan listrik, Pipet tetes .Variabel Terikat : Variabel yang dibuat berbeda.Contoh : Larutan Na2SO4, larutan KI, indikator PP, Larutan universal ,Larutan amilum.Variabel Respon : Variabel yang merupakan hasil eksperimen.Contoh : Perubahan warna.Tanggal Praktikum : 18 November 2013 Kelas : XII IPA 6 Anggota Kelompok : Ahmad Roihan (01)Anindita Ratna (03)Anissa Hasna (04)Farandy Insan (06)Nilna Jauharotul K (11)Rifky Anindita (14)SMA NEGERI 1 LAWANGTAHUN AJARAN 2013/2014PENDAHULUAN a. Landasan TeoriElektrolisis adalah peristiwa penguraian atas suatu larutan elektrolit yang telah dilaliri oleh arus listrik searah. Sedangkan sel di mana terjadinya reaksi tersebut disebut sel elektrolisis. Sel elektrolisis terdiri dari larutan yang dapat menghantarkan listrik yang disebut elektrolit, dan sepasang elektroda yang dicelupkan dalam elektrolit (larutan atau leburan). Pada sel elektrolisis, reaksi kimia akan terjadi jika arus listrik dialirkan melalui larutan elektrolit, yaitu energi listrik (arus listrik) diubah menjadi energi kimia (reaksi redoks). Reaksi-reaksi elektrolisis bergantung pada potensial elektroda, konsentrasi, dan over potensial dari spesi yang terdapat dalam sel elektrolisis. Elektroda yang menerima elektron dari sumber arus listrik luar disebut Katoda, sedangkan elektroda yang mengalirkan elektron kembali ke sumber arus listrik luar disebut Anoda. Katoda adalah tempat terjadinya reaksi reduksi dan anoda adalah tempat terjadinya reaksi oksidasi. Katoda merupakan elektroda negatif karena menangkap elektron sedangkan anoda merupakan elektroda positif karena melepas elektron. Reaksi yang terjadi pada katoda dan anoda pada sel elektrolisis sama seperti pada sel volta, yaitu di katoda adalah tempat terjadinya reaksi reduksi dan di anoda adalah tempat terjadinya reaksi oksidasi. Akan tetapi, muatan elektronnya berbeda. Pada sel volta katoda bermuatan positif dan anoda bermuatan negatif, sedangkan pada sel elektrolisis katoda bermuatan negatif dan anoda bermuatan positif. Macam-macam elektrolisis : • Elektrolisis leburan elektrolit Dapat digunakan untuk menghantar ion-ion pada sel elektrolisis. Leburan elektrolit tanpa menggunakan air. Contohnya adalah NaCl. • Elektrolisis air Jika arus listrik dilewatkan melalui 2 elektroda dalam air murni, tidak terjadi elektrolisis. Tetapi, jika larutan CuSO4 / KNO3 ditambahkan air murni dengan konsentrasi rendah, akan terjadi elektrolisis dan dapat menghantarkan arus listrik. • Elektrolisis larutan elektrolit Reaksi yang terjadi tidak hanya melibatkan ion - ion dalam larutan saja,tetapi juga air. Contohnya adalah KI.Elektrolisis mempunyai banyak keguanaan di antaranya yaitu dapat memperoleh unsur-unsur logam, halogen, gas hidrogen dan gas...

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