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Chemistry Halogens Lab Essay

995 words - 4 pages

Maggie MitchellIB Chemistry Prd. 5The Halogens LabDate:9/11/13Purpose:The purpose of this experiment was to observe and record the halogens' (NaF, NaCl, NaBr, and KI) reactions with the chemicals Ca(NO3)2, AgNO3, and NH4OH and use these observations to identify an unknown halogen.Data:(see next page)
Table 1: Reactions of Halogens with Ca(NO3)2, AgNO3, and NH4OH

Reaction

NaF

NaCl

NaBr

KI

Reaction w/ Ca(NO3)2

solution turns cloudy and precipitate forms

clear precipitate formed

slightly cloudy precipitate formed

no reaction

Reaction w/ AgNO3

no reaction

white, cloudy precipitate formed

thick white/yellow precipitate formed

cloudy yellow precipitate formed

Reaction w/ NH4OH

does not dissolve; precipitate becomes defined

does not dissolve; precipitate becomes defined

does not dissolve

Table 2: Reaction of Halogens with Hexane and Chlorine Water

Reaction

NaF

NaBr

KI

Color of the Top Layer

clear

yellow

pink

Is this Halogen MORE or LESS active than Cl?

more

less

less

Table 3: Reaction of Unkown Halogen D with Ca(NO3)2 and AgNO3

Reaction Used to Test the Unknown

Result of the Test

Possible Identity of the Unknown

Ca(NO3)2

solution turns cloudy and precipitate forms

NaF or NaBr

AgNO3

no reaction

NaF

AgNO3/NH4OH

no reaction

NaF

Questions:The halogens should have similar chemical properties because they all belong to the same group in the periodic table. When elements are in the same group that means that they have the same number of valence electrons. Valence electrons determine an element's chemical properties, and when elements have the same amount, it means that they will have similar properties.When the halogen solutions are mixed with calcium nitrate, generally a cloudy precipitate is formed.The only halogen to not react this way is KI.When the halogen solutions are mixed with silver nitrate, generally a thick yellow/white precipitate is formed.The only halogen that did not react this way was NaF.None of the precipitates from step 6 seemed to dissolve in step 7 when NH4OH was added.The halogen that was more reactive than chlorine was NaF.The halogens that were less reactive than chlorine were NaBr and KI.The activity of the halogens increase up a group.To distinguish NaF from the other halogens, one would compare its reactions with Ca(NO3)2, AgNO3, AgNO3/ NH4OH, and hexane to the other halogens' reactions. In reaction to Ca(NO3)2, NaF's reaction forms a cloudy precipitate, which would distinguish it from KI which had no reaction at all. In this reaction, NaF's liquid also turned cloudy, which further distinguishes it from NaCl and NaBr, which liquids were clear in the reaction. NaF is also the only halogen not to react at all with AgNO3 and AgNO3/ NH4OH and to have a clear top layer in reaction with hexane, which means it is more reactive than chlorine, which even further more distinguishes it from the others.To distinguish NaCl solution from the NaBr solution,...

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