1. The decision making process for canned tuna is as follows:
(i) Problem Recognition – Consumers of canned tuna are motivated primarily by the need to satisfy their physiological need of hunger which is the most basic level of needs under Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Problem recognition can also stem from stock-outs where consumers run out of canned tuna supplies. In addition, motivation of purchase can be marketer-induced to incite new needs/wants by introducing consumers new uses of canned tuna through the introduction of new recipes
(ii) Information Search – The purchase of canned tuna is a routine, repetitive and habitual behaviour, as such consumers largely rely information search internally based on their previous purchases of various brands of canned tuna. Nevertheless some consumers may rely on external search. For example, health conscious consumers will extend their search externally by searching for product information such as nutritional facts of the various brands of tuna. Consumers who are price sensitive will search for price information and sales promotions in the form of discount coupons in newspapers
(iii) Alternative Evaluation – Consumers will have in mind an evoke set of brands that they intend to purchase after engaging the above information search. Certain brands of canned tuna will also form part of the consideration set if there is substantial reminder advertising. Due to a perceived lack of product differentiation in general, the most common form of evaluation criteria are price and promotion where brands may be evaluated favorably on the basis of the best promotion and/or lowest price. Consumers who are brand conscious or loyal will also based brands as their evaluation criteria.
(iv) Purchase Decision – As canned tuna is a low involvement product, consumers often simplify the purchase decision process and make use of either price-based or promotions-based heuristics. Nonetheless, consumers who are highly brand loyal will based their evaluation on brands regardless of price or promotion. It must be noted that for canned tuna, a low involvement product, the time between purchase intention and actual purchase is very short, as such some consumers may based their purchase decision on brand familiarity or loyalty. Marketers can also affect purchase decision at the point of sales as a last touch point by enforcing reminder advertising with nice packaging, exhibiting brand names prominently, have a strong shelf presence and put attractive displays.
(v) Post-purchase Evaluation – For consumers who have purchased a new brand of tuna, he or she may compare the consumption of the food with previous purchases which have formed the basis of consumer’s expectation for the new brand of tuna bought. If the tuna taste comparatively similar or better, satisfaction occur, otherwise dissatisfaction of the product will result.
Due to the general perceived lack of differences between brand...