Child Care Services, that include first, custodial services concerning health, hygiene and safety of children, second, child development services covering socialization, language skill and personality development and third, pre-school services ranging from informal learning to formal educational preparatory learning from elementary schools, was appeared to be initiated in France in 1770 in the name of “Salles d’asile” (asylum room) for serving the interest of working women. Along with custodial services, academic subjects such as reading and doing arithmetic, performing singing and drawing as extra-curricular activities were being taught in order to bring order, discipline and obedience to instructions among children (Pougatch-Zalcman, 1980) . This approach of “Salles d’asile” was immediately accepted by the French society and grew in hundreds throughout France. However, in 1848 “Salles d’asile” was transformed to “Ecole maternelle” (nursery school) not only by changing the name but also by changing the initial focus or objectives from safety and protection for accessible education for all children regardless of their origin, and hence created an equal opportunity in education for the entire population.
Another milestone was achieved in 1837 when Friedrich Froebel founded his own school in Germany and named it “Kindergarten” or the children’s garden. Prior to Froebel’s Kindergarten, children under the age of seven did not attend school as it was thought that children below that age lacked the ability to focus or to develop cognitive and emotional skills. Froebel, on the other hand, promoted his school for children six and below and expressed his beliefs as because learning begins when consciousness erupts, and education must also . Froebel’s kindergarten offered play and discovery oriented activities (active learning) along with protection and safety. Froebel’s concept of kindergarten earned immense popularity and as a result, opened doors throughout Germany and then across Europe and Frobel’s concept of Kindergarten crossed the Atlantic to North America in 1856 in Wisconsin, the United States. The first public kindergarten in Canada was established in 1892 as part of the Protestant system in Montreal.
Maria Montessori in 1907 added a new philosophy and approach in Child Care through “La Casa Dei Bambini” or the children’s house in Rome, Italy with an emphasize on children’s independence, freedom within limits and children’s psychological development commensurate to the technological advancement of the society. Montessori education is practiced in over 20,000 schools throughout the world and service students from birth to eighteen years old.
Theories, concepts and researches on Child Care
Child Care centers were initially developed for aiding working mother as in 18th century mothers in families were primarily responsible to rear children. Over a period of time with the influence of advancement in social science as well as in pure...