China And Economic Reform Essay

4634 words - 19 pages

Kentrell ManuelTwo years after the death of Mao Zedong in 1976, it became apparent to many of China's leaders that economic reform was necessary. During his tenure as China's premier, Mao had encouraged social movements such as the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution which had had as their bases ideologies such as serving the people and maintaining the class struggle. By 1978 Chinese leaders were searching for a solution to serious economic problems produced by Hua Guofeng, the man who had succeeded Mao Zedong as CCP leader after Mao's death' (Shirk 35). Hua had demonstrated a desire to continue the ideologically based movements of Mao. Unfortunately, these movements had left China in a state where agriculture was stagnant, industrial production was low, and the people's living standards had not increased in twenty years (Nathan 200). This last area was particularly troubling. While the gross output value of industry and agriculture increased by 810 percent and national income grew by 420 percent between 1952 and 1980average individual income increased by only 10 percent Ma Hong quoted in Shirk 28. However, attempts at economic reform in China were introduced not only due to some kind of generosity on the part of the Chinese Communist Party to increase the populace's living standards. It had become clear to members of the CCP that economic reform would fulfill a political purpose as well since the party felt, properly it would seem, that it had suffered a loss of support. As Susan L. Shirk describes the situation in The Political Logic of Economic Reform in China, restoring the CCP's prestige required improving economic performance and raising living standards. The traumatic experience of the Cultural Revolution had eroded popular trust in the moral and political virtue of the CCP. The party's leaders decided to shift the base of party legitimacy from virtue to competence, and to do that they had to demonstrate that they could deliver the goods. (23) This movement from virtue to competence seemed to mark a serious departure from orthodox Chinese political theory. Confucius himself had posited in the fifth century BCE that those individuals who best demonstrated what he referred to as moral force should lead the nation.Using this principle as a guide, China had for centuries attempted to choose at least its bureaucratic leaders by administering a test to determine their moral force. After the Communist takeover of the country, Mao continued this emphasis on moral force by demanding that Chinese citizens demonstrate what he referred to as correct consciousness. This correct consciousness could be exhibited, Mao believed, by the way people lived. Needless to say, that which constituted correct consciousness was often determined and assessed by Mao. Nevertheless, the ideal of moral force was still a potent one in China even after the Communist takeover. It is noteworthy that Shirk feels that the Chinese Communist Party leaders saw economic...

Find Another Essay On China and Economic Reform

India and China: A Comparison of Economic Growth and Development

2154 words - 9 pages . While attaining a consensus is often difficult India hopes that this form of democracy in economic reform will increase commitment and dedication to the policy. (The World Bank)Like India, China also faced some obstacles in rebuilding their economy after a civil war had left their country in political and economic turmoil. The civil war resulted in the Communist party gaining control over mainland China and the Hainan Islands while the Nationalist

Economic Reform/Policy Mix, Covers macro and micro economic reforms in Australia

1710 words - 7 pages Question:What role do governments have in modern mixed economies such as Australia? Using appropriate indicators (macro economic aggregates) outline the present state of the economy. In what ways is the Commonwealth government using fiscal and monetary policies to influence the Australian economy? What are the main features of the government's micro economic policy? Why is the government concerned about microeconomic reform?Synopsis:The role of

Economic Reform/Policy Mix, Covers macro and micro economic reforms in Australia

1450 words - 6 pages measured by PPP-adjusted GDP, about 1.7% of the world economy. Australia is the 19th-largest importer and 19th-largest exporter. The Reserve Bank of Australia publishes forecasts of the economy quarterly.The Australian economy is dominated by its service sector, comprising 68% of GDP. The mining sector represents 10% of GDP; the "mining-related economy" represents 9% of GDP - the total mining sector is 19% of GDP. Economic growth is largely dependent

China policy mix and economic performance over the last decade.

2788 words - 11 pages . Deflation resurfaced during late 2001- end-2002, peaking in April 2002 at 1.3 percent(LiuTian.2005). Falling goods prices were more than accounted for this decline, as most service prices continued to increase moderately.From 1992 to 2003, China government used fiscal policy, monetary policy and supply side policy for achieve their planned goal.2.0 Introduction.All the governments achieve their planned economic targets through the differing

Economic and Political Strategies of China versus Japan

1069 words - 4 pages China and Japan From 1500 to 1800, China and Japan tried to politically and economically established their countries in very different ways. Japan fought war after war for a century before they changed their ways. China on the other hand slowly established a government and used education as a tool to be politically and economically strong. Japan would later do the same. China was one of the most politically and economically strong

Social and economic freedom in China through Globalisation.

531 words - 2 pages for developing LEDC. In the case of China the influences of globalization have had an enormous impact.Economical changes.Before China in the 1970s opened its trading borders to the world, its domestic market was quite underdeveloped; comprised mainly of primary industry like steel production and agriculture.It was then that foreign capital investment could be made which laid the foundations for its economic expansion in other industrial sectors

China: Pros and Cons of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership

1408 words - 6 pages issues (ASEAN). Thanks to the successful first round of negotiations that began May 2013 in Brunei, three more rounds of negotiations ensued with the most recent of which occurring April 2014 in China. The overall aim of the RCEP negotiations is to accomplish a comprehensive and modern economic partnership that demonstrates high-quality and a visible, mutual benefit to all of the countries involved. Theses participating countries account for around

China: Pros and Cons of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership Part 1

1502 words - 6 pages carrier of the RCEP which plans on integrating the “Plus six”, partners China, Australia, Japan, India, New Zealand and South Korea in order to achieve the expansion of free trade. This free trade agreement plans on bringing together the three largest economies in Asia in hopes to achieve economic activity with China as one of the leaders. It will also create one of the largest trading blocs in the world. China has one of the fastest growing economies

Critically assess Zimbabwe's present economic recovery and reform programmes. In your opinion, what are their chances of success?

3778 words - 15 pages number of factors account for this hence the rampant poverty that has rocked the country today.An analysis of the various economic recovery and reform programmes is done summarily done below with more emphasis and time given to the most recent one - NERP.Economic Structural Adjustment Programme (ESAP)In October 1990, the Zimbabwe government succumbed to Western donor pressure and grudgingly agreed to implement the five-year Economic Structural

China's External Relations and Their Economic Impact CHINA-ASEAN RELATIONS : Perspectives, prospects and implication for northeast Asia interests

2107 words - 8 pages Southeast Asia - or Nanyang, stemmed in history and geography, and were affected by migration. The "Cold War" relationship with China in the 1950's and 1960's, dètente and normalization in the 1970s, gradual expansion of two-way trade after China's increasing reform and open-door policy in 1979 affected the trade relations between China and ASEAN.Sino-ASEAN economic relations mainly concentrated in ASEAN-4 is defined in border trades

What do you see as the principal economic challenges faced by China and how might these be addressed?

7955 words - 32 pages policy and started to reintegrate with the global economy. In the past 20 years, all the nationalities throughout the country have supported Deng Xioaping's theory and made economic development the central task. Reform has been put forward on all aspects and a sustainable, rapid, and healthy development of the national economy has been promoted. However, Just as the former leader, Deng Xiaoping said, the economic construction in China is like

Similar Essays

This Essay Is About China And Economic Reform In China

1075 words - 4 pages aspect of Chinese economic reform was the decision of China to join the world economy. Deng Xiaoping and his allies hoped to effect this 1979 resolution in two ways: by expanding foreign trade, and by encouraging foreign companies to invest in Chinese enterprises. This policy--denoted the "Open Policy" (Shirk 47)--was a drastic removal from the policies of Mao Zedong and, in fact, from centuries of Chinese political culture. The Open Policy, which

The Environmental Implications Of Political And Economic Reform In Communist China

2477 words - 10 pages , speedy, large scale, and often unregulated development will obviously have dire consequences for their natural environment. However, recent economic reform isn't solely to blame for the massive environmental degradation which China is experiencing. A long history of political negligence and disregard for environmental policy and practice are also a key contributor to the recent state of unrest. In recent years however, the question of equilibrium

China: Economic Growth And Regional Development.

4286 words - 17 pages economic zones" (SEZ) along the coast. This Is because the chief architect of economic reform Deng Xiaoping, believed that a large country such as China could not achieve rapid economic growth in all its various regions simultaneously, both urban development and economic growth have been uneven across the country. For example, in 2001, 50 per cent of all FDI went to just three locations--Guangdong province, next to Hong Kong, Shanghai, and Jiangsu

Shanghai And China´S Economic Rise Essay

1770 words - 7 pages of China announced on December 15, 1978 that the two governments would establish diplomatic relations on January 1, 1979. It was also in December 1978 that the Chinese government under the leadership of Deng Xiaoping launched the policy of “reform and opening” (gai ge kai fang). However, Steinfeld argues in his book that the real story really begins over a decade later in the year after 1989 Tiananmen while acknowledging the importance of that