Chloroflourocarbons Essay

1169 words - 5 pages

Chloroflourocarbons were discovered in the 1920's by Thomas Midgley, an organic chemist at General Motors Corporation. He was looking for inert, non-toxic, non-flammable compounds with low boiling points that could be used as refrigerants. He found what he was looking for in the form of two compounds: dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12) and trichloromonoflouromethane (CFC-11). In both compounds, different amounts of chlorine and fluorine are combined with methane, which is a combination of carbon and hydrogen. These two CFCs were eventually manufactured by E.I. du Pont de Nemours and company, and, under the trade name "freon," constituted 15% of the market for refrigerator gases.CFCs were the perfect answer for cooling refrigerators and air conditioners. They were easily turned into liquid at room temperature with application of just a small amount of pressure, and they could easily then be turned back into gas. CFCs were completely inert and not poisonous to humans. They became ideal solvents for industrial solutions and hospital sterilants. Another use found for them was to blow liquid plastic into various kinds of foams.In the 1930's, household insecticides were bulky and hard to use, so CFCs were created because they could be kept in liquid form and in an only slightly pressurized can. Thus, in 1947, the spray can was born, selling millions of cans each year. Insecticides were only the first application for CFC spray cans. They soon employed a number of products from deodorant to hair spray. In 1954, 188 million cans were sold in the U.S. alone, and four years later, the number jumped to 500 million. CFC filled cans were so popular that, by 1968, 2.3 billion spray cans were sold in America.The hopes of a seemingly perfect refrigerant were diminished in the late 1960's when scientists studied the decomposition of CFCs in the atmosphere. What they found was startling. Chlorine atoms are released as the CFCs decompose, thus destroying the Ozone (O3) atoms in the high stratosphere. It became clear that human usage of CF2Cl2 and CFCl3, and similar chemicals were causing a negative impact on the chemistry of the high altitude air.When CFCs and other ozone-degrading chemicals are emitted, they mix with the atmosphere and eventually rise to the stratosphere. CFCs themselves do not actually effect the ozone, but their decay products do. After they photolyzed, the chlorine eventually ends up as "reservoir species" - they do not themselves react with ozone- such as Hydrogen Chloride, HCL, or Chlorine Nitrate, ClONO2. These than further decompose into ozone hurting substances. The simplest is as follows: (How do CFCs Destroy the Ozone)Cl + O3 -----> ClO + O2 ClO + O ------> Cl + O2 O3 + O -------> 2 O2The depletion of the ozone layer leads to higher levels of ultraviolet radiation reaching Earth's surface. Therefore, this can lead to a greater number of cases of skin cancer, cataracts, and impaired immune systems, and is expected to reduce crop...

Find Another Essay On Chloroflourocarbons

Chlorofluorocarbons Essay

1119 words - 4 pages outcome is imminent.Bibliography:- ARIC(2004). "Hydrochlorofluorocarbons"-Fishman, Jack and Kalish, Robert. Global Alert. New York and London 1990- Loadstone. CFC Use. CheatHouse. Februar 26, 2003. Friday, 7 April 2006: 12:56 pm- Loadstone. Chloroflourocarbons. CheatHouse. Marts 14, 1997. Friday, 7 April 2006: 12:59 pm-McMicheal Anthony, Woodruff Rosalie, Hales Simon. "Climate change and human health" National Centre for Epiderniology and Population

Space, Where No Man Has Gone...Yet

4490 words - 18 pages water levels in a given area by conducting the water elsewhere. Other instances of these changes are accidental: such as the release of chloroflourocarbons (CFC?s) which attack the ozone layer, and sulfur or nitrogen compounds released by industrial emissions into the atmosphere that cause acid rain (Canby 57). Some of the pollutants being emitted have incredibly long lifespans (Canby 58). CFC?s can remain active for up to 100 years and

Reality and Illusion in Shakespeare's Hamlet - Reality, Appearance and Deception

896 words - 4 pages Reality and Illusion in Hamlet   Shakespeare’s play, Hamlet, begins with the appearance of a ghost, an apparition, possibly a hallucination. Thus, from the beginning, Shakespeare presents the air of uncertainty, of the unnatural, which drives the action of the play and develops in the protagonist as a struggle to clarify what only seems to be absolute and what is actually reality. Hamlet's mind, therefore, becomes the central force of the

Sub-plots in Hamlet

1118 words - 4 pages Sub-plots in Hamlet   There are many things that critics say make Hamlet a "Great Work," one of which is the way that Shakespeare masterfully incorporates so many sub-plots into the story, and ties them all into the main plot of Hamlet’s revenge of his father’s murder. By the end of Act I, not only is the main plot identified, but many other sub-plots are introduced. Among the sub-plots are trust in the Ghost of King Hamlet, Fortinbras, and

Hamlet as Victim and Hero

1301 words - 5 pages Hamlet as Victim and Hero      Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, a Shakespearean tragedy, tells the story of Prince Hamlet, who gained the knowledge of a terrible incident that his kingdom had suffered. Claudius, the king of Denmark and Hamlet's uncle, had killed his own brother, the king, who was also the father of Hamlet, and married his brother's widow. Hamlet suffered these traumas to a severe degree, and his only relief was to defeat his

Essay on Light and Dark in Antigone

1188 words - 5 pages Use of Light and Dark in Antigone   The "Golden Age" of Greece is noted for its many contributions to the creative world, especially in its development of the play. These performances strived to emphasize Greek morals, and were produced principally for this purpose. Antigone, by Sophocles, is typical. The moral focused on in Antigone is the conflict between physis (nature) and nomos (law), with physis ultimately presiding over nomos

charant Creon as the Main Character of Antigone

1231 words - 5 pages Creon as the Main Character of Antigone   Throughout the Greek play Antigone by Sophocles, there exists a dispute as to who should receive the designation of main character. Antigone, the daughter of the cursed King Oedipus, as well as Creon, stately king of Thebes, both appear as the key figures in this historic play. I believe that Creon, king of Thebes, should be considered the main character in this work of Greek theater. Three

Free Macbeth Essays: Sleep and Sleeplessness

525 words - 2 pages The Sleep and Sleeplessness Motif in Macbeth We have consciences that function to tell us the difference between right and wrong. If we have clear consciences, we usually possess the ability to sleep. But when our consciences are full of guilt, we experience a state of sleeplessness. In Macbeth, Shakespeare uses the sleep and sleeplessness motif to represent Macbeth's and Lady Macbeth's consciences and the effect Macbeth's conscience has on

Life Outside of Life in Hawthorne’s Wakefield

898 words - 4 pages Life Outside of Life in Hawthorne’s Wakefield   Efficacy lies at the heart of human desires for immortality. Characters throughout literature and art are depicted as wanting to step aside and see what their world would be like without their individual contributions. The literary classic A Christmas Carol and the more recent, but ageless, film It’s Wonderful Life both use outside influences (three ghosts and Clarence the Angel

Essay on Identity in Song of Solomon

2172 words - 9 pages Searching for Identity in Song of Solomon         Abstract: Whether Africans really fly or just escape a monumental burden, perhaps only through death, is a decision Toni Morrison has apparently left to her readers. Never the less, no matter what you believe, within Song of Solomon, the suggestion is, that in order to "fly" you must go back to the beginning, back to your roots. You must learn the "art" from the old messages.   O

The Character of Oedipus in Oedipus and The Infernal Machine

904 words - 4 pages The Character of Oedipus in Oedipus and The Infernal Machine    The stories of Oedipus, as told through Seneca's Oedipus and Cocteau's The Infernal Machine, contain both similarites and differences. Both authors portray the character of Oedipus as being obstinate, ignorant, and inquisitive. Yet Seneca and Cocteau differ on their interpretation of the motives that propelled these characteristics of Oedipus. Seneca portrays Oedipus as a

Similar Essays

We Need A Ban On Chloroflourocarbons (Cf Cs)

2445 words - 10 pages We Need a Ban on CFCs     Life on this planet Earth is the product of a delicate balancing act provided by nature. Mankind's very existence is totally dependent on this fragile ecosystem's ability to maintain itself. A valuable player in the balance of the environment, the ozone layer, is facing a very serious threat by man. Chloroflourocarbons (CFCs), are chemical agents commonly found in refrigerants, aerosol sprays, and in the

Climate Change And Greenhouse Gases Essay

1373 words - 5 pages some of the infrared radiation from escaping, trapping the heat near the Earth’s surface where it warms the lower atmosphere.  Alteration of this natural barrier of atmospheric gases can raise or lower the mean global temperature of the Earth”(Greenhouse Gas).   There are four major gases that cause the greenhouse effect.  These chemicals are Chloroflourocarbons (CFC’s), Nitrous Oxide (N2O), Carbon Dioxide (CO2), and Methane (CH4).  “CFC’s

Cfc's Detroy The Ozone Essay

2218 words - 9 pages environment, we are still left with many decades of decreasing ozone and increased UV exposure. We must think long term and act now.Works CitedFarman, J.C., B.G. Gardiner, and J.D. Shankin. "Large losses of total ozone in Antarticareveal seasonal CIOx/NOx interaction." Nature v.230 (Aug.4,1985): p.205-215.Roach, M. "Sun Track." Health v.201 (May/June 1992): p.119-125.Rowland, F.S. "Chloroflourocarbons and the depletion of stratospheric ozone."American

The Five Themes In Geography Essay

1222 words - 5 pages emissions include not only carbon dioxide, but chloroflourocarbons from refrigerants as well, which escalates the depletion of the ozone (O3) layer exponentially (film - Geography tutor). Only recently did our governments pass a law banning the use of chloroflorocarbons. Sadly, humans continue to deplete one of earth's greatest natural resources which could aid in the natural repair of the ozone layer, our rain forests. The list of violations people