Choose A Topic That Interests You, It Should Be Within Your Abilities , There Should Be Enough Information Available On It To Give A Complete Paper. It Should Be No Less Than 2 Pages Long.

1596 words - 6 pages

OCEANSIntroductionAccording to, oceans cover about 70% of the earth's surface. The ocean contains roughly 97% of the earth's water supply. Oceans serve many functions especially affecting the weather and temperature. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the theory of Continental Drift, the ocean's origin, its characteristics and finally what Islam has voiced on oceans.Continental Drift: At the start of the 20th century there were no maps for the seafloor. In 1915 a German geologist and meteorologist Alfred Wegener, proposed the theory of Continental Drift which states that parts of the earth's crust slowly drifted atop a liquid core. Wegener hypothesized that an original gigantic super continent existed 200 million years ago. He named it Pangea meaning "all earth "in Greek.Pangea consisting of all the earth's land masses, started to break up into smaller super continents: Laurasia and Gondwaland. By, the end of the Cretaceous period the continents had separated into land masses that resemble our modern day continents.(3:1)Origin of the Sea:Scientists believe that seas are 500 million years old. Geo-Scientists agree with the hypothesis that both the atmosphere and oceans have accumulated through time from some process of degassing of the earth's interior. According to this theory, the ocean had its origin from the prolonged escape of water vapor and other gases from the molten igneous rocks of the earth to the clouds, surrounding the cooling earth.After the earth's surface cooled to a temperature below the boiling point of water. Rain began to fall and continued to fall for centuries. Water drained into steep hollows in the earth's surface. A primeval ocean came into existence. The forces of gravity prevented water from leaving the planet. (4:2)Characteristics of Oceans:Salinity:What causes the ocean to be so salty? Water flows into rivers and picks up small quantities of mineral salts from rocks and soil from the river beds. This very slightly salty water flows into oceans and seas. Water in oceans only leaves by evaporating (and the freezing of polar ice). Salt remains dissolved in the ocean it does not evaporate. The remaining water gets saltier and saltier as time passes by.Oceanographers report salinity (total salt content) and concentrations of individual chemical constituents in parts per one thousand. Symbolized as "o/oo". Through out the world the average salinity of the water is about 35 o/oo. (3:2) .The saltiest water is found in the Red Sea and The Persian Gulf. Its salinity is about 40 o/oo. (3:2). Due to high evaporation rates and low fresh water influx , low salnities occur in the Polar Seas where salt water is diluted by melting ice. Baltic seas range in salinity from about 5 to 15 o/oo. Salinity of sea water along the the US varies with the time of the year and the geographical location.Salinty of oceans are affected by many factors: Melting ice Inflow of river water. ...

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