Chronic Lymphatic Leukemia Essay

1146 words - 5 pages

General Description

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) is slow-progressing or “chronic”, cancer of the blood and bone marrow. CLL is the second most common leukemia in adults and one of the four primary types of leukemia. Certain risk factors have been identified including age, race, sex, family history of blood and bone marrow cancers and chemical exposure. Most people diagnosed with CLL are white males over the age of 60. Occurrence increases with age and a marked increase after 60. Herbicides, insecticides and Agent Orange used in the Vietnam War have shown to increase the risk of developing CLL. There are approximately 15,000 new cases diagnosed each year.


The cause of CLL is unknown at this time but much research is being put into finding the cause. Since the cause is unknown, there is no way to prevent CLL. One recent study has identified skewed kappa-lambda free light chain ratio up to nine years prior to the onset of CLL. The National Institutes of Health has established that monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis results in higher risk of developing CLL.
95% of the genetic mutations resulting in CLL are in B-cells. The other 5% are in T- or NK-cells. These mutations result in abnormal lymphocytes (leukemic cells). As the cancer progresses from the blood to the marrow, the increased number of cancerous cells push healthy white blood cells, red blood cells and platelets out of the bone marrow. This “takeover” of the marrow can result in anemia, reduced ability to fight infection and easy bleeding. The increased rates of secondary infections are the result of decreased infection-fighting capacity of white blood cells.


A patient with CLL can go undiagnosed for years as it is usually asymptomatic and has little effect on a patient’s health in the early stages. CLL is usually found during a regular checkup. The signs and symptoms are most likely caused by opportunistic infections due to the decreased white blood cell count. Symptoms can include:
• Painless swelling of the spleen or lymph nodes in neck, underarm, stomach or groin
• Tiring easily
• Shortness of breath
• Pain/fullness between the ribs
• Fever and infection
• Unexplained weight loss

CLL is diagnosed with a physical exam, including a complete history, and blood & bone marrow tests. Many types of blood and bone marrow tests can be performed including:
• Complete blood count – Hematocrit, white blood cell count, platelet count and hemoglobin concentration.
• Cytogenic analysis – Microscopic examination of lymphocytes to look for structural changes or changes in number of chromosomes.
• Immunophenotyping – Microscopic examination to determine if CLL is from B or T cells.
• Bone marrow aspiration & biopsy – Removal of bone marrow, blood and small piece of bone from the hip or breastbone. A pathologist will then review for abnormal cells.


It is extremely important to be treated by a...

Find Another Essay On Chronic Lymphatic Leukemia

Euthanasia: A controversial issue paper dealing with whether or not people have the right to choose to die. This paper is in support of euthanasia/assisted suicide.

1257 words - 5 pages that ninety-onepeople, mostly cancer patients, have used the provision to end their live.(Rudden, 207) John Ashcroft and other members of the Christian right havetried to get rid of Oregon's Death with Dignity Law. Nicholas Kristof said"they should come here and talk to people like Florence Tauber." (Kristof,1) Mrs. Tauber's husband was healthy and in good shape. Then a doctor toldhim he had chronic lymphatic leukemia. The leukemia left him

The Development of Gene Manipulation Essay

1679 words - 7 pages - definition from (n.d.). Retrieved from Luther, N. (2014). Retrieved from O’Brien, D. (2014). Stem Cell Strides. Pn, 68(4), 18-21. Riede, I. (2010). Tumor Therapy with Amanita phalloides (Death Cap): Stabilization of B-Cell Chronic Lymphatic Leukemia. Journal Of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 16(10

Give Science A Chance

1892 words - 8 pages side effects from a few experiments mean research should stop on a science that has the possibility to change the lives of millions. Furthermore, it is found that most people who underwent a stem cell transplant felt better then prior to the operation. In fact, to this date, the only therapy that has a proven ability to cure chronic lymphatic leukemia is a stem cell transplant from a matched donor. It’s a rather cut and dry argument


4270 words - 17 pages cells may migrate into the lymphatic channels and be carried to the draining lymph nodes, or they may penetrate the blood vessels. Once in the bloodstream, the tumor cells are carried to the point at which the vessels become too small for the large tumor cells to pass. Cells from tumors of the gastrointestinal tract will be stopped in the liver. Later they may go on to the lungs. Cells from all other tumors will go to the lungs before being

Reality and Illusion in Shakespeare's Hamlet - Reality, Appearance and Deception

896 words - 4 pages Reality and Illusion in Hamlet   Shakespeare’s play, Hamlet, begins with the appearance of a ghost, an apparition, possibly a hallucination. Thus, from the beginning, Shakespeare presents the air of uncertainty, of the unnatural, which drives the action of the play and develops in the protagonist as a struggle to clarify what only seems to be absolute and what is actually reality. Hamlet's mind, therefore, becomes the central force of the

Sub-plots in Hamlet

1118 words - 4 pages Sub-plots in Hamlet   There are many things that critics say make Hamlet a "Great Work," one of which is the way that Shakespeare masterfully incorporates so many sub-plots into the story, and ties them all into the main plot of Hamlet’s revenge of his father’s murder. By the end of Act I, not only is the main plot identified, but many other sub-plots are introduced. Among the sub-plots are trust in the Ghost of King Hamlet, Fortinbras, and

Hamlet as Victim and Hero

1301 words - 5 pages Hamlet as Victim and Hero      Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, a Shakespearean tragedy, tells the story of Prince Hamlet, who gained the knowledge of a terrible incident that his kingdom had suffered. Claudius, the king of Denmark and Hamlet's uncle, had killed his own brother, the king, who was also the father of Hamlet, and married his brother's widow. Hamlet suffered these traumas to a severe degree, and his only relief was to defeat his

Essay on Light and Dark in Antigone

1188 words - 5 pages Use of Light and Dark in Antigone   The "Golden Age" of Greece is noted for its many contributions to the creative world, especially in its development of the play. These performances strived to emphasize Greek morals, and were produced principally for this purpose. Antigone, by Sophocles, is typical. The moral focused on in Antigone is the conflict between physis (nature) and nomos (law), with physis ultimately presiding over nomos

charant Creon as the Main Character of Antigone

1231 words - 5 pages Creon as the Main Character of Antigone   Throughout the Greek play Antigone by Sophocles, there exists a dispute as to who should receive the designation of main character. Antigone, the daughter of the cursed King Oedipus, as well as Creon, stately king of Thebes, both appear as the key figures in this historic play. I believe that Creon, king of Thebes, should be considered the main character in this work of Greek theater. Three

Free Macbeth Essays: Sleep and Sleeplessness

525 words - 2 pages The Sleep and Sleeplessness Motif in Macbeth We have consciences that function to tell us the difference between right and wrong. If we have clear consciences, we usually possess the ability to sleep. But when our consciences are full of guilt, we experience a state of sleeplessness. In Macbeth, Shakespeare uses the sleep and sleeplessness motif to represent Macbeth's and Lady Macbeth's consciences and the effect Macbeth's conscience has on

Life Outside of Life in Hawthorne’s Wakefield

898 words - 4 pages Life Outside of Life in Hawthorne’s Wakefield   Efficacy lies at the heart of human desires for immortality. Characters throughout literature and art are depicted as wanting to step aside and see what their world would be like without their individual contributions. The literary classic A Christmas Carol and the more recent, but ageless, film It’s Wonderful Life both use outside influences (three ghosts and Clarence the Angel

Similar Essays

Taking A Closer Look At Leukemia

1197 words - 5 pages white blood. Years after, Virchow discovered the two major types of leukemia. (“The Discovery”) When leukemia slowly advances, it is known as the Chronic Leukemia. Chronic Lymphatic Leukemia, Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, Acute Lymphatic Leukemia, and Acute Myeloid Leukemia are the four kinds of leukemia. There is also Hairy Cell Leukemia, but it’s rare. The sorts of leukemia can be classified on the kind of white blood cells that are affected. (“The

Leukemia: Cancer Of The Blood Essay

1634 words - 7 pages leukemia are marked by leukocytosis; abnormally high white blood cell numbers in the blood. Leukocyte counts of 100,000/mm cubed in circulating blood are common. Leukemia is either described as acute or chronic, based on how quickly the symptoms appear after the disease begins. Leukemia can also be classified as lymphatic or myeloid, depending on the cell type involved. Chronic Lymphatic Leukemia (CLL), Acute Lymphatic Leukemia (ALL), Chronic

Cancer Essay

1479 words - 6 pages blood. Around 30 years after the discovery of the disease, doctors organized four types of Leukemia: Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia, Erythroleukemia and Chronic Lymphocytic and Myelogenous Leukemias.Disease DescriptionThe term Leukemia is a broad term that consists of different cancers that occur in the bone marrow, the soft, spongy center of bones, which is responsible for supplying blood cells. The cells that are produced in the bone marrow include

Leukemia: Treatment Through Biological Therapy And Chemotherapy

1138 words - 5 pages Leukemia is cancer of the body's blood-forming tissues, such as the bone marrow and the lymphatic system, and causes large amounts of abnormal blood cells to be produced and enter the blood stream (Mayo Clinic, 2013). Unlike normal blood cells, leukemia cells don’t die when they become old or damaged. Because of this, leukemia cells can build up and crowd out the normal blood cells making it harder for the body to get oxygen to the tissues