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Chronological Issues And Their Philosophical Solutions A Comparison Of 3 European Thinkers And Their Writtings: John Locke, Karl Marx And Fredrick Engels, And Niccolo Machiavelli.

1059 words - 4 pages

Chronological Issues And Their Philosophical SolutionsThroughout history, there have been many philosophers who have looked at their environments, all seeking the remedies to the social, economic, and political problems faced by its people. Among them are Niccolo Machiavelli, John Locke, and Karl Marx and Fredrick Engels. Each of the authors' ideas and writings are influenced by, and reflect, the problems that they faced during their time. This difference in the temporal environment created oppositions between the philosophers' views. This essay will explore the writings and environments of each aforementioned philosopher and offer an analysis of how each would criticize the others' ideas.Machiavelli was born in Florence, Italy during the 15th century, a time in which the country was in political and social disorder. Italy was separated into four main states, and each of these was frequently at the mercy of the more powerful foreign governments of Europe. Throughout his career Machiavelli sought to set up a state with the ability of resisting foreign attack. When the Medici family regained power in 1512 with the help of Spanish troop, Machiavelli was expelled from public life. For the next 10 years he dedicated himself to writing history and political philosophy. Machiavelli's greatest work is The Prince, written in 1513 and published after his death in 1532.In his book, The Prince, Machiavelli describes the process by which a prince can obtain and uphold political power. A prince should use any means of convenience, including deception, to retain total power and control of his country. Machiavelli argued that it is primarily the character and skill of the prince that determines the success of his reign. Thus, a prince must possess and exhibit the following five qualities: forgiveness, integrity, humaneness, morality, and spirituality. To free national countries from the influence of foreign governments, Machiavelli explains that strong local governments are important.John Locke was born in England, during the 17th century, in which he witnessed social and political problems throughout his life, such as taxation without representation and dictator oppression. In his attempts to provide an answer to the social problems he encountered, he wrote the Second Treatise on Civil Government (1690), which attacked the theory of "divine right of kings." The divine right of kings is the belief that kings are endowed by God with the right to rule countries. Locke argued that sovereignty did not reside in the state but with the people. He says that the state can only be supreme if it is bound by the civil and "natural" law. He believed that people have the natural right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, which no other man can take from them. Furthermore, governments can only be established by the consent of the people to preserve those natural rights. In addition, in it is the duty of all men to revolt against kings who try to have absolute power...

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