520 © 2009 Palgrave Macmillan 1350-23IX Brand Management Vol. 16, 8, 520-531 www.palgrave-journals.com/bm
Mihalis Kavaratzis Urban and Regional Studies Institute, University of Groningen, P.O. BOX 800, Groningen 9700 AV, The Netherlands Tel: + 31 50 363 8289 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
in this debate and the suggestions for the implementation of branding campaigns within cities are often countered by crit- ical voices. This paper examines the phenomenon of city branding attempting to clarify some of the issues involved. To that end, two related literatures need to be brought together, namely the steadily growing literature on place branding and the extensive literature on corporate brands.
CITIES AS BRANDS Slogans such as ' Das Neue Berlin ' , ' Basel beats differently ' or ' Edinburgh: Inspiring Capital ' are increasingly commonplace.
INTRODUCTION City branding has in recent years become a prevailing activity within city manage- ment. Cities all over the world use several conduits to promote themselves to rele- vant audiences such as investors, visitors and residents and in their efforts they commonly include striking logos and captivating slogans that feature in wel - coming websites and advertising campaigns in national and international media. At the same time, a substantial debate over the usefulness and proper application of city branding has accumulated among academics, consultants and government offi cials. Various issues have been raised
Beyond the logo: Brand management for cities Received (in revised form): 3rd October, 2007
GREGORY ASHWORTH was educated at St. John ' s College Cambrige (BA, 1962), University of Reading (MPhil, 1967), Birkbeck College, University of London (PhD,.1974). He has taught at the University of Wales, Cardiff Department of Geography, Cyncoed. 1966 - 1969; University of Portsmouth, Department of Geography, 1969 - 1979. University of Groningen, Faculty of Spatial Sciences 1979 - . Since 1994, he is Professor of Heritage Management and Urban Tourism in the Department of Planning, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, the Netherlands.
MIHALIS KAVARATZIS was born in Athens, Greece. He studied business administration in the University of Piraeus in Greece and then obtained an MSc in Marketing from the University of Stirling in Scotland. In 2004 he joined the Urban and Regional
Studies Institute (URSI) of the University of Groningen. He is completing his PhD on city marketing in Europe.
Abstract A city ' s brand is increasingly considered an important asset for urban development and an effective tool for cities to distinguish themselves and improve their positioning. The introduction of corporate- level marketing concepts and, especially, corporate branding has signifi cantly contributed towards the development of a city branding theory. In practice, however, there is an evident confusion of a wide branding strategy with one of its components, namely the design of a new logo and slogan or, at best, the development of a...