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Civilizations Of The Fertlile Crescent Essay

896 words - 4 pages

SumerThe city states that developed along the rivers of southern Mesopotamian between 3500 B.C.E and 2400 B.C.E are known together as Sumer , The citizens of the city whose origins are unknown migrated from the north. Sumerians are credited with many inventions such as the wagon wheel and plow, casting objects in copper and bronze, and created a system of writing although writing was also being developed in Egypt at time.Sumerians pressed wedge shaped symbols called Cuneiform symbols into clay tablets using writing sticks called stylus to keep bank records. The Sumerians had impressive buildings called Ziggurats, which were stepped pyramid structures with a temple or shrine at the top. Ziggurats proclaimed the wealth and power of city rulers and glorified the gods. They were given "House of the Mountain" and "Bond between Heaven and Earth". Ziggurats had exteriors decorated mosaics images made by small colored pieces fixed to hard surfaces. Urk now known as Iraq, was the first independent Sumerian city-State and had two large temples complexes, one was dedicated to Inanna the goddess of love and war, the other most likely to the sky god Anu. The Anu ziggurat ultimately rose to 40 feet. Around 3100 B.C.E a brick temple was created that is know as the White Temple. The structure was a simple rectangular oriented to the points on the compass. An off center doorway led into a large chamber containing a raised and altar smaller spaces opened off the main chamber. Interiors wall in both the Inanna and the Anu compounds were cone mosaics a decoration invented by Sumerians. Sculptures were associated by religion and large statues were commonly found in temples. A striking lifelike image may represent a goddess. Eastern sculptors of the time told their stories with great economy and clarity by organizing pictures into registers, and condensing the narrative in comic book like form on vases. In ancient size was associated with importance this is known as the hieratic scale and the goddess was dominating the scene. The stylized figures, which do not follow natural appearance are shown in side or profile view. Limestone statues known as Votive figures images dedicated to the gods represent an early example of Eastern religious practices. The placement of the statues consisted of simple small statues of individual worshipers followed by the image of a god. From 3500B.C.E Sumerian artists worked with various metals including. Many of the metal were made into animal shapes and musical instruments such as the lyre. About the time written records appeared, Sumerians developed stamps and seals for establishing property ownership. At first Sumerians used simple clay stamps with designs incised or cut into one surface but eventually temple...

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