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Clash Of Civilization Essay

951 words - 4 pages

Perbandingan Teori Samuel P.Huntington (The Clash of Civilization) dengan Edward W. Said (The Clash of Ignorance)Usai perang dunia, bukan lagi pertentangan antar beberapa blok maupun Negara. Dalam hipotesanya, Huntington memperkirakan bahwa sumber yang mendasari konflik di era baru tidak lagi sebuah ideology (isu HAM serta demokrasi liberal) maupun ekonomi (kapitalisme). Perpecahan diantara umat manusia dan sebagian sumber konflik berasal dari kebudayaan. Pengelompokan tidal kagi berdasarkan territorial suatu Negara, namun lebih kepada pengelompokan berdasarkan kesamaan budaya, peradaban serta kepercayaan. Dengan simbol-simbol budaya (Bahasa, sejarah, agama, institusi dan sejenisnya) yang digunakan oleh suatu grup, maka akan membedakan grup tersebut dengan grup lainnya.Setidaknya ada lima alasan terjadinya hal tersebut yang diungkapkan oleh Samuel P. Huntington.Pertama, perbedaan antar peradaban didasari dengan sejarah, Bahasa, kebudayaan, tradisi dan yang paling menonjol adalah agama. Orang-orang dari suatu kelompok akan berbeda cara pandangnya dengan orang-orang dari kelompok lainnya dalam melihat Tuhan dan manusia, individu dan kelompok, orang tua dan anak, suami dan istri, sebagaimana ia melihat hak dan kewajibannya, kekuasaan dan kebebasannya, serta kesetaraan dan tingkatannya. Perbedaan ini merupakan hasil dari peradaban yang lampau dan tak mudah untuk dihilangkan. Hal ini lebih mendasar dibandingkan dengan perbedaan ideology politik. Huntington menjelaskan bahwa perbedaan tidak selalu menjadikan konflik dan konflik bukan berarti selalu berbentuk kekerasan namun kenyataannya adalah perbedaan kelompok besar di masa lampau, Kristen dan Islam, menjadi sebuah konflik yang terlama dan banyak memakan korban.Kedua, dunia menjadi semakin sempit sehingga orang dapat berinteraksi dengan orang lain secara intensif sehingga timbul rasa persamaan maupun rasa perbedaan paham dengan orang tersebut. Dengan adanya interaksi dengan peradaban yang berbeda, maka akan muncul kesadaran akan permusuhan dimasa sejarah lampau. Huntington percaya bahwa pergesekan dimasa yang akan datang merupakan lanjutan dari sejarah mas lalu suatu peradaban.Ketiga, proses modernisasi ekonomi dan perubahan social yang memisahkan seseorang dari identitas local yang sudah lama berjalan. Selain itu, hal ini juga menyebabkan melemahnya Negara kesatuan menjadi sebuah identitas suatu penduduk. Hal ini tentunya dapat menjadi dasar sebuah pergerakan yang menentang hal tersebut. Pergerakan tersebut dapat lahir dari agama, yang biasa diperankan oleh anak muda, mahasiswa, pekerja professional hingga para pebisnis.Keempat, perkembangan kesadaran peradaban ditingkatkan dengan dua peran barat yakni barat berada pada puncak kejayaannya sedangkan disisi lain terdapat pihak-pihak anti-barat. Phak-pihak tersebut antara lain "Asianization", "Hinduization", serta "reIslamization". Dengan puncak kejayaan berada di pihak barat, maka pihak non-barat akan berusaha untuk menjadikan tatanan dunia yang...

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