This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Classical And Operant Conditioning Essay

1596 words - 7 pages

Classical and Operant Conditioning
QUESTION ONE
Classical conditioning is a technique of learning that occurs when an unconditional stimulus is paired with a conditional stimulus. The unconditional stimulus is biologically potent, the conditional stimulus is neutral (Kalat, 2011). Example of each is taste of food and sound of tuning fork respectively. After repeated pairing, the organism exhibits a conditional response to the conditional stimulus. The conditional response is similar to the unconditioned response though it is relatively impermanent and is acquired through experience (Kalat, 2011).
Operant conditioning is a system of learning that transpires through punishment and rewards for behaviors (Kalat, 2011). Through this, a connection linking a behavior and a consequence is made. For instance a kid could be told that she will not get recess privileges if she talks in class. This possibility of being punished leads to decrease in disruptive behaviors from her. The major components of operant condition are punishment and reinforcement (Kalat, 2011).
Contrasting the two, operant was first described by an American psychologist while classical conditioning was described by a Russian psychologist. Another key dissimilarity involves the kinds of behaviors that are conditional (Weseley, McEntarffer, & McEntarffer, 2010). Whilst classical conditioning is based on automatic and involuntary behaviors, operant conditioning focuses on intentional behaviors. Operant conditioning focuses on strengthening or weakening voluntary behaviors while classical conditioning specializes on involuntary and automatic behaviors. Classical conditioning involves placing a conditional stimulus which is a impartial signal prior to a reflex while the operant conditioning involves applying punishment or reinforcement before a behavior. Classical conditioning is maintained by its antecedents and consequences while operant is maintained by conditioning of reflexive behaviors which are also elicited by antecedent conditions. Response in operant conditioning arises over a given time period as compared to classical conditioning that occurs immediately (Weseley, McEntarffer, & McEntarffer, 2010).

QUESTION TWO
Animal training
Classical conditioning is applied by animal trainers for two purposes: for training automatic responses without using a stimulus that would obviously create such response, and, generating a relationship between a stimulus that would not affect the animal and another one that would affect it. Stimuli that animals react to without training are called primary stimuli. They include pain and food. Animals do not require to be trained on how to react to electric shock just as the dogs of Pavlov did not have to learn about food (Coon, Mitterer, Talbot, & Vanchella, 2010).
Secondary stimuli are stimuli that animals respond to just after learning about them. For example, in Pavlov’s test, the sound of a bell did not mean...

Find Another Essay On Classical and Operant Conditioning

Operant and Classical Conditioning Essay

847 words - 3 pages Classical conditioning was identified by Thorndike (pictured left), he experimented on a number of animals and generalised the results to humans. Classical conditioning is where a conditioned response leads to a conditioned response which has risen from unconditioned response caused by an unconditioned stimulus.Thorndike's Law of Exercise is the theory that when the stimulus and response are connected several times, then the connection is

Classical or Operant Conditioning Essay

1187 words - 5 pages was measured when the dog was presented with meat powder. The paradigm as defined by (Colman, 2009) is one of the two key processes of learning, the other being operant conditioning. In classical conditioning the pairing of a conditioned stimulus creates a conditioned response. (Clark, 2004) describes the process and components. The unconditioned stimuli (US) produced an unconditioned response (UR). Pavlov did not teach this pairing to the animal

Classical conditioning VS Operant conditioning

1100 words - 4 pages INTRODUCTIONLearning is necessary for all animals, it helps the survival of the fittest and helps adjust to the ever-changing environment. Learning is the association between two events together. Classical conditioning and operant conditioning both work with associating events together.Classical conditioningThanks to Ivan Pavlov, the accidental discovery of classical or 'Pavlovian conditioning' led to a whole new section of learning. Classical

Contrasting Principles of Classical and Operant Conditioning

2660 words - 11 pages basic forms: conditioning – classical and operant and observational learning. Myers defined conditioning as ‘the process of learning associations’. Classical conditioning is where the stimulus serves as a signal for the occurrence of a second stimulus. (Learning to associate two stimuli’s together). In classical conditioning we are able to acquire information about the relations between various stimuli and not just

Classical and Operant Conditioning: A Contrast. Clearly explains both forms of conditioning and contrasts the two

1302 words - 5 pages Though classical conditioning and operant conditioning are both techniques involving learning and the acquisition of behaviors, they have contrasting--but sometimes complementary-- ways of training. However, with pioneers in each conditioning practice believing in the general principle, "Psychology should be based on experimental investigation of behaviors," the two fields often intersect.Classical conditioning was brought to the forefront of

Operant Conditioning and Parenting Practices between Hispanics and North Americans

1542 words - 6 pages There were two families at the park with their kids. One family was Hispanic and the other family was American. The kids where out on the playground, and they started fighting. The Hispanic mother grabbed her child and spanked him. While the American mother grabbed her child and explains to him why the situation was wrong and took away the toy that he had. These mothers use operant conditioning to discipline their children. Both mother use

Fear of Flying and Classical Conditioning Theory

669 words - 3 pages How Lauren may have learned of her Fear of Flying? How Lauren learned she had a fear in flying? Using the Classical Conditioning theory the possibilities could be endless. Classical conditioning in simple terms is the method in which one determines why and the cause of a condition as well as what has brought it about. There are many stimulus both conditioned and unconditioned that can cause fear or other problems, but the major reason for

Ivan Pavlov and His Theory on Classical Conditioning

739 words - 3 pages Classical conditioning is the conditional programming of an organism to respond to a conditioned stimulus that seeks to enhanced and enforce a certain behavior in an organism. This is achieved through the use of classical conditioned stimulus or object that is presented with an unconditioned stimulus in an organism. Classical conditioning involves the use of a neutral stimulus in order to instil a classically generated behavior or response in

Effects of Stress, Classical Conditioning, Anxiety, Negative Reinforcement, and Positive Reinforcement

1578 words - 6 pages In psychology you learn about several things that also apply in every day life that may or may not run your life and you could not even know about it. Here are a few examples about how the small things in my life control my life in good and bad ways. I will be explaining how stress, classical conditioning, anxiety, negative reinforcement, and positive reinforcement can affect your life and the lives of others around you. Stress- stress plays

Describe the procedure in Kamin’s blocking experiment. Explain the blocking effect and its implications of our understanding of the conditions of classical conditioning.

1636 words - 7 pages Describe the procedure in Kamin's blocking experiment. Explain the blocking effect and its implications of our understanding of the conditions of classical conditioning.Leon J. Kamin's blocking experiment (1969) arose out of his interest in whether attention has a role in Pavlovian conditioning and his desire to explore several questions that he held in regards to the contiguity principle (Kamin, 1969, pg. 279). Through his experiment he sought

Phobias and Addictions

988 words - 4 pages theorist. Phobias and addictions are the result of classical and operant conditioning. Those too concept's is behavior modification techniques and are important in behavior psychology. Every one has things that they are affraid of and things that they are addicted to and understanding how they function and how to effectively change the behavior can improve the quality of life. Distinguishing between classical and operant conditioning Some of

Similar Essays

Classical And Operant Conditioning Essay

1191 words - 5 pages While many people may believe that learning is just a natural response that all animals are capable of, there is actually a more complex explanation on how we learn the things we do in order to survive in the world. Classical conditioning and operant conditioning are both basic forms of learning, they have the word conditioning in common. Conditioning is the acquisition of specific patterns of behavior in the presence of well-defined stimuli

Classical And Operant Conditioning Essay

748 words - 3 pages Classical and Operant ConditioningThere are many differences between classical and operant conditioning. One is the extent to which reinforcement depends on the behavior of the learner. In classical conditioning the response is a natural reaction that the subject cannot avoid. They can be conditioned at any time for that reason. It relies on reflex, to which we have no volitional control. An example of this is when I ate lots of coconut in

Classical And Operant Conditioning Essay

725 words - 3 pages Learning can be defined as an experience that causes a relatively permanent change in an organism. There are two broad types of learning, classical conditioning and operant conditioning. Classical conditioning has to do with associating a stimulus with a response and this was promoted by Ivan Pavlov. Operant conditioning has to do with the consequences of a behavior determining its future occurrence and was promoted by B. F. Skinner (Schater

Classical And Operant Conditioning Essay 787 Words

787 words - 3 pages There are two main explanations of how organisms learn. Thefirst explanation is known as classical conditioning. The secondexplanation is known as operant conditioning. These two types oflearning are exhibited in our everyday lives through our home,school, and school.Classical conditioning was discovered by Iran PetrovichPavlov. He was originally a physiologist whose main focus wasthe digestive system (Gazzaniga 230). His discovery was