Classical And Operant Conditioning: A Contrast. Clearly Explains Both Forms Of Conditioning And Contrasts The Two.

1302 words - 5 pages

Though classical conditioning and operant conditioning are both techniques involving learning and the acquisition of behaviors, they have contrasting--but sometimes complementary-- ways of training. However, with pioneers in each conditioning practice believing in the general principle, "Psychology should be based on experimental investigation of behaviors," the two fields often intersect.Classical conditioning was brought to the forefront of psychology via Ivan Pavlov's experiments with dogs. His theory suggested that an organism could learn to associate one stimulus it expected and responded to automatically with a stimulus that held no prior importance to the organism. In his experiments, Pavlov would have the original stimulus, or the unconditioned stimulus (UCS), follow the non-important stimulus, or neutral stimulus (NS), when presented to the dogs. He would then observe the innate reaction to the UCS, or the unconditioned response (UCR), to the original UCS. Eventually, through repetition of the pairing (association) of the NS and the UCS, the dogs would begin to demonstrate the same innate behavior to the NS alone. This was a major breakthrough: the NS was no longer neutral; it became a conditioned stimulus (CS), and the once-unconditional response now became a conditioned response (CR).Through further experimentation with this base knowledge, Pavlov identified five major conditioning processes: acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery, generalization and discrimination. Acquisition defined the initial stage of the conditioning process when the association of the NS with the UCS took place. The organism acquires an expectation that the NS comes to signal a UCS, and consequently responding accordingly. When a CS is no longer followed by the UCS, extinction occurs and the CS will eventually cease to elicit a CR. In simpler terms, the number of responses decreases, or becomes extinct. An extinguished CS can, however, make a random appearance after a 'rest period' between the applications of conditioned stimuli. This is called spontaneous recovery, and it led Pavlov to understand that extinction suppressed the CR, rather than eliminating it. Generalization and Discrimination both involve the distinguishing of outside stimuli and whether or not they will signal a response: generalization is a tendency to associate similar stimuli with the original CS, and discrimination is when an organism can discriminate between the CS and other stimuli.Let's say that a child is sitting at the dinner table with a plate of pizza before him. Pepperoni pizza is his favorite food, and it always has been. This time, however, the pepperoni tastes a little funny. Shortly after dinner, his stomach becomes a little upset, and a little upset quickly accelerates into full-blown sick. The poor, sick boy is in the hospital for a week with what the doctor tells him is food poisoning. He doesn't really care what it is, just as long as it doesn't happen again. While in...

Find Another Essay On Classical and Operant Conditioning: A Contrast. Clearly explains both forms of conditioning and contrasts the two.

Contrasting Principles of Classical and Operant Conditioning

2660 words - 11 pages basic forms: conditioning – classical and operant and observational learning. Myers defined conditioning as ‘the process of learning associations’. Classical conditioning is where the stimulus serves as a signal for the occurrence of a second stimulus. (Learning to associate two stimuli’s together). In classical conditioning we are able to acquire information about the relations between various stimuli and not just

Classical conditioning VS Operant conditioning Essay

1100 words - 4 pages INTRODUCTIONLearning is necessary for all animals, it helps the survival of the fittest and helps adjust to the ever-changing environment. Learning is the association between two events together. Classical conditioning and operant conditioning both work with associating events together.Classical conditioningThanks to Ivan Pavlov, the accidental discovery of classical or 'Pavlovian conditioning' led to a whole new section of learning. Classical

Classical or Operant Conditioning

1187 words - 5 pages was measured when the dog was presented with meat powder. The paradigm as defined by (Colman, 2009) is one of the two key processes of learning, the other being operant conditioning. In classical conditioning the pairing of a conditioned stimulus creates a conditioned response. (Clark, 2004) describes the process and components. The unconditioned stimuli (US) produced an unconditioned response (UR). Pavlov did not teach this pairing to the animal

Operant Conditioning

513 words - 2 pages operant conditioning of Jingles was to use controlled consequences to achieve the response that I wanted.The behavior being modified was jumping up on the kitchen counter either with or without a person in the kitchen at the time, day or night.The punishments that were used were coke cans filled a quarter of the way with water lining the kitchen counter no more than six inches apart and two inches from the edge and a toy squirt gun filled with

Operant Conditioning

743 words - 3 pages individual is conditioned to respond. The distinctive characteristic of operant conditioning relative to previous forms of behaviorism (e.g., Thorndike, Hull) is that the organism can emit responses instead of only eliciting response due to an external stimulus. Reinforcement is the key element in Skinner's S-R theory. A reinforcer is anything that strengthens the desired response. It could be verbal praise, a good grade or a feeling of increased

Operant Conditioning

732 words - 3 pages Operant Conditioning Introductory Narrative Since the arrival of our twins undesirable behavior has manifested in one of our 11 yr. old. While initially very conscienscious in helping attend to the infants & her ordinary duties, she has become accustomed to playing with them mostly now. This play in itself is great, except they no longer get the changing & feeding expected. Furthermore she uses them as an excuse now to put off doing the

Fear of Flying and Classical Conditioning Theory

669 words - 3 pages How Lauren may have learned of her Fear of Flying? How Lauren learned she had a fear in flying? Using the Classical Conditioning theory the possibilities could be endless. Classical conditioning in simple terms is the method in which one determines why and the cause of a condition as well as what has brought it about. There are many stimulus both conditioned and unconditioned that can cause fear or other problems, but the major reason for

Classical Conditioning.

1890 words - 8 pages classical conditioning and operant condition with the purpose of finding the similarities and differences in both procedures.So, the first common thing about these two methods is that both Classical conditioning and Operant Conditioning were introduced with the aim of help to us in understanding the process of learning and having emotional responses to particular subjects.Both operant conditioning and classical conditioning explain the reason of

Classical Conditioning

1167 words - 5 pages the other being operant conditioning. In classical conditioning the pairing of a conditioned stimulus creates a conditioned response. (Clark, 2004) describes the process and components. The unconditioned stimuli (UCS) produced an unconditioned response (UCR). Pavlov did not teach this pairing to the animal; it was a biologically natural reflex. The dog saw food (UCS) and salivated (UR). In order to induce a conditioned reflex Pavlov paired neutral

Classical Conditioning

732 words - 3 pages The most basic form of learning is associative learning with classical conditioning, thought to be the best for the study of behavioral learning theory. In order to understand how classical conditioning works, one must be familiar with the basic principles of the process.Theory and Concepts of Classical ConditioningClassical Conditioning is a concept discovered by Ivan Pavlov while studying the digestive system of dogs. The theory of Classical

Classical COnditioning

1292 words - 5 pages response". CLASSICAL CONDITIONING      Classical Conditioning is the type of learning made famous by Pavlov's experiments with dogs. In an article titled, An Animal Owner’s Guide to Operant and Classical Conditioning, by Stacy Braslau explained the process of the experiment. Pavlov presented dogs with food, and measured their salivary response (how much they drooled). Then he began ringing a bell just before

Similar Essays

Classical And Operant Conditioning Essay

1191 words - 5 pages While many people may believe that learning is just a natural response that all animals are capable of, there is actually a more complex explanation on how we learn the things we do in order to survive in the world. Classical conditioning and operant conditioning are both basic forms of learning, they have the word conditioning in common. Conditioning is the acquisition of specific patterns of behavior in the presence of well-defined stimuli

Classical And Operant Conditioning. Essay

748 words - 3 pages positive behavior. Anyone can be punished for a negative behavior. Also, anyone can perform a behavior to avoid certain negative consequences. This is how operant conditioning changes behavior. The change occurs when the subject behaves out of active choice.Generalization and discrimination are two similarities between classical and operant conditioning. Generalization occurs when the subject associates the stimulus or reward with more than one

Classical And Operant Conditioning Essay

787 words - 3 pages There are two main explanations of how organisms learn. Thefirst explanation is known as classical conditioning. The secondexplanation is known as operant conditioning. These two types oflearning are exhibited in our everyday lives through our home,school, and school.Classical conditioning was discovered by Iran PetrovichPavlov. He was originally a physiologist whose main focus wasthe digestive system (Gazzaniga 230). His discovery was

Operant And Classical Conditioning Essay

847 words - 3 pages . Higher order conditioning is when there are two conditioned stimulus's present, one is responded to more than the other. Simultaneous conditioning is when the unconditioned stimulus and conditioned stimulus are presented at the same time.Principles of classical conditioning are generalisation, extinction and spontaneous recovery. Generalisation is when the original association to a stimulus is extended to include similar stimuli. Whereas extinction