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Classical Conditioning. Essay

1890 words - 8 pages

The research on classical conditioning started with a number of experiments by Ivan Pavlov. He started with ringing the bell and after that giving some food to the dog. After some time the dogs start to salivate when they receive the food but do not actually salivate when they hear a bell. He repeated the experiment a number of times and observed that after some time the dogs started to salivate just after they heard the sound of the bell, even they did not get any food.Classical conditioning works in the following way. Prior to the conditioning, when some subject is being presented with some stimulus that is unconditioned (UCS) normally, without former learning, the result of that is unconditioned response (UCR). A stimulus which has an outcome of a reflex that happens naturally and does not require to be learned, which is considered to unconditioned response is called unconditioned stimulus. In the described above experiment the food and salivation can be called respectively UCS and UCR. At the same time, represented by the bell neutral stimulus in the experiment conducted by Pavlov does not have a result of in UCR, salivation.For the duration of conditioning, a neutral stimulus is presented instantly foregoing unconditioned stimulus that in turn has a result of unconditioned response. This experiment is repeated a number of times, in dependence with the subject, the connection between neutral stimulus, UCS, and UCR, and preferred result. After the process of conditioning, the subject is given the originally neutral stimulus that in this case is conditioned stimulus (CS), avoiding unconditioned stimulus. The response of the subject is now directed to conditioned stimulus by making conditioned reaction, which was usually made by unconditioned stimulus. The conditioned response can be described as a response that was learned and the conditioned stimulus can be described that a stimulus that, during learning, causes a conditioned response.Such a type of classical conditioning tests are quite easy to design and be carried out. For example, everyone knows that children love cartoons and they come running into the living room whenever they hear one on television. In this case, prior to conditioning, cartoons is an unconditioned stimulus and a child running into the living room is an unconditioned response because it is done without any prior learning, for exception of seeing cartoons for the first time and liking it, but this is not relevant to the experiment.During conditioning, a specific song is played loudly in the living room and then cartoons are turned on. Normally, the child would not respond to the song because it is not indicative of anything yet. Therefore, the song is a neutral stimulus and the song and child's reaction are still unconditioned stimulus and response After several repetitions the child will learn that the song indicates that the cartoons are about to be on TV and run into the living room. At this point, the third stage of...

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