This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Classical Indian Theories Of Knowledge Essay

2110 words - 8 pages

Theories of error are known as Khyativadas. Kyati means cognition, here erroneous cognition. Khyati means erroneous cognition. Error (of when we perceive silver in the shell) is regarded as a big issue only when we are to explain such a perception and are confronted with the thought that is it because of the object itself or our subjective attitude towards it. Either way in explaining away any khyati vada, the status of the object is put in the parameters.The Buddhist Sunya vadins consider the object to be unreal. Nothing is real and the illusory object is no exception. Illusion consists in the unreal appearing as real. When valid knowledge arises, the illusory object is sublated. This may be called Asatkhyati. Because of sublation it is not real. Valid knowledge? This is difficult to imagine as Nagarjuna had written an entire treatise, Vigrahavyavartani refusing to give any status to pramanas by method of illocution.Anyhow the views of the other schools consider the object of erroneous cognition to be real in some sense. It may be that what is real within as an idea, appears as if without. This is according to the Atma-khyati (apprehension of the cognition(atma) by itself) of the Buddhist Vijnanavadin. Or it may be that error is due to non-discrimination between two real objects one remembered and the other seen. This is the akhyati of Samkhya. Or, it may the appearance here of a thing that is elsewhere, and is cognized through a type of extra ordinary perception. This is the anyatha-khyati vada of the Nyaya Vaisesika. Or error may be due to any positive wrong knowledge but due to a mere negation of non apprehension due to certain weakness of the mind of two distinct experiences combined. This is the akhyati professed by the Prabhakara School of Mimamsa.In Nyaya manjuri, Jayanta puts all the other Khyati vadas under suspect and then vouches for the supremacy of anyathakhyati vada propounded by the Naiyayikas. In this answer I will assist Jayanta?s practice though not with the intention to uphold any presupposition about the any khyativada as the ultimate view to explain away an error as basic as that of Silver in shell or the rope snake illusion.Jayanta understanding of Asatkhyati in the silver in the shell is as follows: Neither the shell is real nor the silver. The silver is unreal since it is aublated at the disappearance of the illusion. Shell is also not real since it is to be understood as one factor of the sublating cognition among others such as silver and the connection of silver-shell.Jayanta?s refutation of Asatkhyati is based on the understanding of asatkhyati to either mean awareness of a non existent object or the object is existent somewhere and is absent in the present locus. This reminds me of definite descriptions, which as devices of quantification on Russell?s view could enter into scope relations with other operators such as negation. His solution too like the Sunya vadins is advantageous to express a proposition with...

Find Another Essay On Classical Indian Theories of Knowledge

Classical Theorists Relevance to Today Essay

930 words - 4 pages , Marx). However, not all-classical theorist utilized the same approach, as they examined from within the margins, thus implementing themselves as the observers (i.e. Du Bois & Wells-Barnett). Not to mention, the idea of relativism in which we comprehend the knowledge, once again deriving from the classical theories. Classical theories serves as a building block revealing the construction of an emerging collective society, which allows

Review of Bimal Krishna Matilal?s essay ?A Realistic view of Perception?

2291 words - 9 pages Indian Theories of Knowledge? that I found out that the ambiguity prevalent at the starting of the essay was rather deliberate. It contradicts the over explained notion of a God?s Eye view. In ?Perception: An essay on Classical Indian Theories of Knowledge? it was explained pertaining to a layman?s rather obvious worldview instead of that of a realist. This was to keep conformity with PF Strawson?s pre-theoretical scheme which was nicknamed as

Comparison of Post-classical societies

885 words - 4 pages emerging Sultanates from the Southern region of India to the Western Pacific Rim (Lecture 16). Politics In the post-classical Indian society, there were many regional kingdoms (Lecture 16). Politically, both the Islamic and Indian society had strong influence on the how the neighboring societies were shaped during the post-classical era. During this period, there was a collapse of centralized political rule within the Indian society. There were also

A Modern Twist on Classical Renunciation

1561 words - 7 pages Upanishads’ ideologies. In Meena Khadelwal’s book Women in Ochre Robes, we can see that women are being introduced into the whole concept of renunciation and because of the clashes with some of the principal theories of renunciation, which are based off the ancient text of the Upanishads and Vedas, women have tweaked certain aspects derived from the classical methods to help fit their gender role but at the same time legitimizing all the altered

neo classical theory

685 words - 3 pages There are various organizational theories that attempt to evaluate the behavior of people in organizations, whether as a group or individually. The neo classical theory focuses on the needs of the workers and puts a premium on empowering employees in an effort to maximize their production (Colorado State University-Global Campus, 2010). Research by Sultana and Manivannan (2009) concludes that workers with institutional knowledge are a

India Dances And MY Blunders

657 words - 3 pages Learning Indian Classical Dance for almost 15 years has helped me to appreciate my culture and help shape who I am today. It has enhanced the understanding of my culture by adding to the basic knowledge I have learned through my parents about my culture and it has opened a whole new world of art to me. It has taught me things about the Hindu religion, which is the basis for the dances, the music and the different stages that go into the making

Understanding Criminals

967 words - 4 pages like these everyday. Early philosophers and scientists looked carefully and dug deep into the Criminal Justice System and the behavior of criminals using theories to explain criminal behavior. With these theories they were able to come up two distinctive schools (Classical and Positive) that explained different views on why people decided to commit crimes. We all use theories in our everyday life. We make assumptions about certain things that in

The Evolution of Management Practices and Theories

2086 words - 8 pages is organised, researched and taught in integrative way, bringing aspects from various disciplines while at the same time developing its own body of theory”. Based on these definitions, management and organisation complement each other hence it is essential to grasp both definitions in other to achieve organisational goals. 1.2 The Various Theories 1.2.1 Classical Management The classical management has two basic drives namely scientific

Blaike Norman's Approaches to Social Enquiry

854 words - 3 pages in 1970 by Sociologist Comte identified that positivism was based on the thesis of naturalism and was characterized by phenomenalism (uniqueness of experience that relies on scientific knowledge), nominalism (asserts that notions on which observation cannot be done have no existence unless it is a name), atomism (object of experience is discrete and independent) general laws (avers that scientific theories are a bunch of law-like statements

blah blah

1228 words - 5 pages many years of interactions and exchanges of ideas thanked to the Silk Road, Islam and Buddhism began to diffuse and spread from their original birthplace and syncretized with various believes system (notably Buddhism and their branches.) Not only that, philosophical ideas and knowledge also were spread across the continent through the Silk Road. This resulted in the preservation of classical Greek literature and knowledge in various Caliphate

The Raga System

1133 words - 5 pages emotion and beauty of the melody. To ensure that this is done successfully, there are some guidelines for Indian Classical musicians to follow to ensure an effective interpretation and display of their art. The system of raga in Hindusthani Classical music is both complex and sophisticated, using particular elements within strict guidelines to attain a pleasing and beautiful sound. In addition to the aesthetic aspect, a raga is also distinctive in

Similar Essays

Theories Of Knowledge And Psychological Applications

2914 words - 12 pages Theories of Knowledge and Psychological Applications How individuals are able to obtain knowledge is something that psychologists have studied for a number of years. The ability to store and retrieve knowledge provides individuals with the propensity to form logical thought, express emotions and internalize the world around them. In order for a psychologist to understand the theories of knowledge it is necessary to investigate the

Explains Your Knowledge Of Counseling A Client. Uses Multi Theories

1891 words - 8 pages that they are only there to help the client change themselves.Counseling is counseling is counseling. Counseling is consistent it never changes, either you can counsel or you can't. Once you've learned the necessities of counseling, you can counsel anyone. A counselor should be able to be given any particular case and have the knowledge to apply a variety of theories that would help the client over come their problem.A particular client is

Early And Later Writings Of Karl Marx. Compares The Classical Works Of Karl Marx And Looks At Some Of His Most Well Known Theories. Includes Works Cited

2110 words - 8 pages The Early and Later Writings of Karl MarxClassical Marxism has had an influence in a number of areas. One may first think of economics, but Karl Marx's theories have also affected ideas about history, society, ideology, culture, and politics, just to name a few. From his early writings in liberal newspapers to his later ones such as Capital, Marx remained true to his revolutionary ideas and Communist thinking. As most writers, his style may have

Clash Of The Titans: Kierkegaard Vs. Nietzsche On Theories Of Knowledge

3019 words - 12 pages Søren Kierkegaard and Friedrich Nietzsche are considered by most to be the grandfathers of existentialist thought. While they had many ideas in common, such as the errors of all previous philosophers, they differed on thoughts concerning knowledge. Kierkegaard believed that knowledge could only be communicated to the audience indirectly, and through that the individual must make his own choice as to which possibility he will accept and