Classical Management Theory Essay

1972 words - 8 pages

Classical Management Theory

Early Management Theories
Early Theories of Organizations emerged mainly for military and Catholic Church. The metaphor of the machine was dominant, where organizations are viewed as machines. Therefore, the organizational application was, since workers behave predictably (as machines do rarely deviate from the norm), management knows what to expect, and workers operating outside expectations are replaced.

Classical Management Theories
There are three well-established theories of classical management: Taylor?s Theory of Scientific Management, Fayol?s Administrative Theory, Weber?s Theory of Bureaucracy. Although these schools, or theories, developed historical sequence, later ideas have not replaced earlier ones. Instead, each new school has tended to complement or coexist with previous ones.

Taylor?s Theory of Scientific Management, U.S.A

Frederick Taylor (1856-1915) ?The Father of Scientific Management?.
Scientific Management theory arose from the need to increase productivity in the U.S.A. especially, where skilled labor was in short supply at the beginning of the twentieth century. The only way to expand productivity was to raise the efficiency of workers.

Taylor devised four principles for scientific management theory, which were:
1. The development of a true science of management,
2. The scientific selection and training of workers,
3. Proper remuneration for fast and high-quality work
4. Equal division of work and responsibility between worker and manager

Limitations of The Theory of Scientific Management:
Although it maximized efficiency and productivity but its main limitation was ignoring human aspects of employment. This is manifested in the following:
? Some workers and unions opposed this theory because they feared that working harder or faster would exhaust whatever work was available, causing layoffs.
? Objection to the "speed up" conditions that placed undue pressures on employees to perform at faster levels, some managers exploited both workers and customers.
? Reducing worker?s role to a rigid adherence to compulsory methods and procedures.
? The increased fragmentation of work due to its emphasis on divisional labor .
? Economically based approach to the motivation of employees .
? It put planning and control of workplace activities only in the hands of managers.
? No real bargaining about wage rates ( jobs were measured and rated ?scientifically?).

 Fayol?s Administrative Theory

Henri Fayol (1841-1925)
Henri Fayol is considered the founder of the classical management school because he was the first to systematize it. Fayol was like Taylor in his faith in scientific methods. However, Taylor was basically concerned with organizational functions, while Fayol was interested in the total organization and focused on management. Fayol insisted that management was a skill that could be taught once its underlying 14 principles were understood....

Find Another Essay On Classical Management Theory

Classical Theory of Criminology Essay

1669 words - 7 pages on the individual, positivist and classical traits. This paper will explore the classical theory, which is among the earliest theories in criminology. Classical criminology theory is a legal systems approach, which emerged in the 1700s age of enlightenment. Various philosophers like John Locke, Jeremy Bentham and Cesare Beccaria expanded upon the theory of the social contract to explain the reasons as to why people commit offenses, and

The Classical Model Theory of Public Administration

2330 words - 10 pages 2004 p. 1). While Frederick Taylor, who also has contributed to the classical model theory, had stated that to meet good accountability, management must make a tight control over its organization and planning process. However, despite the tight control, it does not necessarily mean workers will be too much-exploited (Taylor: Pfiffner 2004 p. 1). Hence, in this classical theory, implementing the leadership role to erect the regulations within the

Classical Liberal Theory

1320 words - 5 pages Classical Liberal Theory Classical liberalism is a very interesting political theory. The underlying belief is that what makes a person human is freedom from the dependence on the will of others. It is complete freedom from any relations with others, except those entered voluntarily. Another main point of classical liberalism is that the individual is the owner of his person and his capacities, for which he owes nothing to society. The

Classical Theory Structure

781 words - 3 pages Classical Theory Structure Introduction By way of illustration, in this document we will describe and explain the classical structural theory as presented by Max Weber. To highlight the advantages and disadvantages of this classical structure as used in a realistic modern organization we will apply this theroy as used today in our public police department. Classical Structural Theory In the classical structural theory a person is hired for

classical school theory

709 words - 3 pages This paper is on the Classical School theory that emerged in the eighteenth century; two writes of this period were Cesare Beccaria and Jeremy Bentham. Among the major ideas that descend from this theory are the concepts of humans as free-willed, rational beings, utilitarianism (the greatest good for the greatest number), civil rights and due process of law, rules of evidence and testimony, determinate sentencing, and deterrence. The writes

Classical Theory Structure

854 words - 3 pages Wriiten for an introductory to TheoryIntroductionBy way of illustration, in this document we will describe and explain the classical structural theory as presented by Max Weber. To highlight the advantages and disadvantages of this classical structure as used in a realistic modern organization we will apply this theroy as used today in our public police department.Classical Structural TheoryIn the classical structural theory a person is hired

Classical and Rational Theory

962 words - 4 pages lifestyle theory. This paradigm was extremely important in explaining criminal behavior. While, the concept of humans having some extent of free will was assumed, but not explained in the classical school, it was embraced and use to explain criminal behavior in this paradigm. This paradigm concluded that people will commit crime for a number of reasons; Which, I completely agree with. I believe this paradigm is right in saying that people have

Classical Theory of Criminology

674 words - 3 pages impression than the fear of a different punishment that is far more severe, but whose chance of being issued is unpredictable (Akers & Sellers, 2012). In order to establish a link between punishment and crime, must punishments are made quickly. As it is stated in the classical criminology theory, the more promptly a punishment is issued after the commitment of a crime, the more useful and just it will be. For punishments to be effective and for them to

Classical Criminology Theory

639 words - 3 pages What is the classical school of criminology and what are the main points of this theory. Cesare Beccaria was a key thinker of this theory and is also considered by some the founder of modern criminology. Classical school of criminology theory placed emphasis on human rationality and free will. Second off this theory unlike the others researched the prevention of crime not the criminals. Also, according to this theory, crime was the result of

Classical Theory Marx & Current Affairs

2513 words - 10 pages third stage in the revolutionary process that aims to implement a sustainable new international system.II. Transnational social movements and the disembodiment of contemporary society.Marx's theory of base and superstructure highlights the idea that a revolution can occur when specific historical conditions are gathered. He says, " No social order is ever destroyed before all the productive forces for which it is sufficient have been developed

Cesare Baccaria's Classical Theory Reviewed

1278 words - 5 pages blamed poverty, citing "Poverty is the parent of revolution and crime." 17th century Brit, Sir Francis Bacon sums it up clearest of all, "Opportunity makes a thief." Whichever your point of view, where persons gather and create a society, crime will take place. What you do with and about that crime is what gives rise societal control.Cesare Baccaria has been deemed the father of the Classical Theory in criminology, and who's writings came from the

Similar Essays

Is Classical Management Theory Outdated And Obsolete?

1831 words - 7 pages Management and leadership are two separate ideas. Management is planning, organising, leading and controlling an organisation (Meyer et al., 2007). Leadership is a process in which a leader influences others to set and achieve goals (Allen et al., 2013). There are several theories that imply that leadership is a quality that cannot be taught, whereas managing can be (Ackoff, 2005). Classical management theory is focused around improving

Today's Value Of The Classical Management Theory

2433 words - 10 pages other. Some of the differences are so radical that they can never be reconciled. An important outcome of this is that, although there might be general agreement from time to time on what constitutes best management practice, the theoretical ingredients will tend to vary. 'Classical management theory is therefore contestable rather than definitive. Although there is a sense of progressive, evolutionary refinement, there is no master narrative to

Classical Organizational Theory Essay

692 words - 3 pages Classical Organizational Theory The purpose of this paper is to explore the Classical Organizational Theory by defining, listing contributors to the development, and presenting the applications of the theory in business management. Developed in the early 1900s to 1930, its emphasis is on the concepts of formal structure and technology. Organizations of that time were struggling to address issues of industrial management, including efficiency

Neo Classical Theory Essay

685 words - 3 pages company’s most important company assets. A company needs to do what it can to retain these valuable assets, and neo classical thinking helped to spawn a new emphasis on job satisfaction and the social aspect of the workplace. History of Neo Classical Theory The neo classical theory became prevalent in the early to mid 20th Century, and was a shift in how management and organizational behavior was viewed. The previous prevailing thought was that a tough