Classical Theory Of Criminology Essay

1669 words - 7 pages

Criminology is the study of why individuals engage or commit crimes and the reasons as to why they behave in certain ways in different situations (Hagan, 2010). Through understanding the reasons or why an individual commits a crime, one can come up with ways to prevent and control crime or rehabilitate criminals. There exist a large number of criminology theories, some link crime to an individual or person; they believe a person weighs the cons and pros and makes a conscious decision on whether to commit or not commit a felony. Others see the society as having a duty to make sure that its members do not engage in criminal acts by providing a secure and safe living place. Some claim that some people have hidden or dormant characteristics that determine their reaction or behavior when confronted or put in particular negative conditions (Akers & Sellers, 2012). By understanding and studying these theories, together with applying them to people, psychologists and authorities can prevent criminals from committing or repeating crimes and aid in their rehabilitation. As many theories have emerged over time, they continue to be surveyed and explored, both individually and in combination in order for criminologists to develop solutions and eventually reduce the levels and types of crime. The most popular criminology theories emphasize on the individual, positivist and classical traits. This paper will explore the classical theory, which is among the earliest theories in criminology.
Classical criminology theory is a legal systems approach, which emerged in the 1700s age of enlightenment. Various philosophers like John Locke, Jeremy Bentham and Cesare Beccaria expanded upon the theory of the social contract to explain the reasons as to why people commit offenses, and interventions through which communities can combat crime effectively. The basic foundation of this theory is the believe that people commit crime or engage in illegal activities when they view the benefits of committing a crime as being greater than the possible costs or punishments (Hagan, 2010). According to this theory, the rational remedy for preventing crimes would be establishing harsher punishments or sentences for committing crimes. Cesare Beccaria is considered to be the classical theory founder. His concept even in today’s world continues to play a significant role in many countries legal systems, however, this approach happens to be more flexible in the modern world.
Cesare Beccaria theory emerged as a result of a reaction against the barbaric system of justice, punishment and law present before 1789. It mainly emphasized on human rationality and free will (Beccaria, 1986). The classical criminology theory was not concerned in studying and understanding criminals, but concentrated on legal processing and law making. According to the theory, crime was believed to be an activity engaged or committed out of free will and that criminals weighed their actions consequences. Punishment...

Find Another Essay On Classical Theory of Criminology

The Classical Model Theory of Public Administration

2330 words - 10 pages The classical model of Public administration so far has been influenced by two major figures, Max Weber and Frederic Taylor. The classical model emphasized on how the superior role in bureaucratic system is indispensable. As Weber stated, "a system of control in which policy is set at the top and carried out through a series of offices with each manager and worker reporting to one superior and held to account by that person”(Weber: Pfiffner

identifying the importance of the theory - criminology 2:2 - assigment

1493 words - 6 pages deviance. New, USA: The free press. 1-18. Cohen, S (1972). Folk Devils and Moral Panics. UK: Granada Publishing. 8. Merton, R (1968). Social Theory and Social Structure. USA: Macmillan. 447. Ministry Of Justice . (2014). Criminal justice statistics . Available: Last accessed 16th Nov 2015. Newburn, N (2007). Criminology. Devon, U.K: Willan Publishing. 210-218. Tannenbaum, F (1938). Crime and the Community. Boston, USA: Ginn. 20.

Critically evaluate the strengths and limitations of classical criminology for explaining Youth Crime in Melbourne - Essay

1547 words - 7 pages The following essay will assess youth crime in Melbourne in relation to classical criminology theory. The classical criminology theory was the initial notable attempt to establish theories of issues of crimes and punishment (Tierney, 2009). The essay will explore classical criminology in regards to the pleasure-pain principle; crimes are committed rationally and under free will, punishment in appropriation to the crime committed and punishment

The Use of Classical Hollywood Theory in Die Hard

630 words - 3 pages Beginning the mid 1920s, Hollywood’s ostensibly all-powerful film studios controlled the American film industry, creating a period of film history now recognized as “Classical Hollywood”. Distinguished by a practical, workmanlike, “invisible” method of filmmaking- whose purpose was to demand as little attention to the camera as possible, Classical Hollywood cinema supported undeviating storylines (with the occasional flashback being an

Aspects of Criminology

1325 words - 6 pages in the field of criminology? The term criminologist is used to describe any individual who is employed in the criminal justice field regardless of formal training. (Schmalleger) These individuals study crime, criminals, and criminal behavior. Those responsible for collecting and examining physical evidence of crime are referred to as criminalists. Criminologists perform a variety of activities such as data gathering, data analysis, theory

Aspects of Criminology

2054 words - 8 pages in the field of criminology? The term criminologist is used to describe any individual who is employed in the criminal justice field regardless of formal training. (Schmalleger) These individuals study crime, criminals, and criminal behavior. Those responsible for collecting and examining physical evidence of crime are referred to as criminalists. Criminologists perform a variety of activities such as data gathering, data analysis, theory

A Critical Evaluation of The Issue of Taking an Item from Work

2290 words - 9 pages values. These norms, however, are defined by social elite not biologically, these norms can further marginalise social groups (White and Haines 2004). Ultimately, within positivist criminology, as well as classical criminology, the criminal justice system controls crime and thus society as a whole (Jones 2006). On the other hand, strain theory suggests that in order for society to work effectively there needs to be a balance of all its component

Social Conflict Theories

891 words - 4 pages Social Conflict Theories In the study of theories of criminology that emphasizes the role of social conflict as it underlies criminality and of social change is critical for the understanding of the interplay between social order and law. The conflict perspective, the pluralist perspective, and the consensus perspective are three analytical perspectives that shed light on this subject. Another type of social conflict theory is radical


828 words - 3 pages VIEWS OF PUNISHMENT: CLASSICAL AND POSITIVISTPOSITIVIST AND CLASSICAL PUNISHMENTAUI OnlineKevin HensleyUnit 2 IPPenologyCRJS335 - 1404B - 0110/15/2014Dr. Edward HaleIntroductionDuring the eighteenth century the enlightenment theory emerged which would pave the way for classical criminology. Until classical criminology was introduced, offenders were believed to be committing crimes because they were sinners and/or possessed by the devil. Because

Biological/psychological factors of crime

1205 words - 5 pages IntroductionThe Positivist School of Criminology rejected the Classical School's idea that all crime resulted from a choice that could potentially be made. Though they did not disagree with the Classical School that most crime could be explained through "human nature," they argued that the most serious crimes were committed by individuals who were "primitive" or "atavistic"--that is, who failed to evolve to a fully human and civilized state


738 words - 3 pages reactions can positively be developed or learned through classical conditioning.BibliographyOlson, M. H. and Hergenhahn, B. R. (2009). An introduction to theories of learning (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice HallRafter, N. H., & Brown, M. (2011).Criminology goes to the movies crime theory and popular culture. New York: New York University.

Similar Essays

Classical Theory Of Criminology Essay

674 words - 3 pages impression than the fear of a different punishment that is far more severe, but whose chance of being issued is unpredictable (Akers & Sellers, 2012). In order to establish a link between punishment and crime, must punishments are made quickly. As it is stated in the classical criminology theory, the more promptly a punishment is issued after the commitment of a crime, the more useful and just it will be. For punishments to be effective and for them to

Classical Criminology Theory Essay

639 words - 3 pages What is the classical school of criminology and what are the main points of this theory. Cesare Beccaria was a key thinker of this theory and is also considered by some the founder of modern criminology. Classical school of criminology theory placed emphasis on human rationality and free will. Second off this theory unlike the others researched the prevention of crime not the criminals. Also, according to this theory, crime was the result of

Today's Value Of The Classical Management Theory

2433 words - 10 pages other. Some of the differences are so radical that they can never be reconciled. An important outcome of this is that, although there might be general agreement from time to time on what constitutes best management practice, the theoretical ingredients will tend to vary. 'Classical management theory is therefore contestable rather than definitive. Although there is a sense of progressive, evolutionary refinement, there is no master narrative to

Fear Of Flying And Classical Conditioning Theory

669 words - 3 pages How Lauren may have learned of her Fear of Flying? How Lauren learned she had a fear in flying? Using the Classical Conditioning theory the possibilities could be endless. Classical conditioning in simple terms is the method in which one determines why and the cause of a condition as well as what has brought it about. There are many stimulus both conditioned and unconditioned that can cause fear or other problems, but the major reason for