Cleat Performance Essay

2267 words - 10 pages

Review of Literature
Within the United States of America, football is emerging as one of the nation’s favorite pastimes. There are many facets of football that make football so exciting; which includes the remarkable speed and size of the athletes. In an article titled “In a Rose Bowl, a Chance to Study Size vs. Speed,” by Pete Thamel, Thamel (2010) describes football as a fascinating matchup of physics. With the ratios of speed to size, each football team can be made of up of a certain amount of both, resulting in the uniqueness of each team. Along the years, many metaphors have even been used to describe such occurrences; one being, comparing the Wisconsin Badgers’ size and the T.C.U. ...view middle of the document...

With the introduction of the forward pass, the game evolved from a display of brute strength to one of speed and skill. The change also resulted in a specialization of position, resulting in reduced fatigue and a steady demonstration of speed the whole game. Not much has changed since the early 1900s, in terms of the importance of speed. Within the present day game, the fastest of the fast participate in what are called kickoffs and punts. These events allow participants from the defensive team to build up forty or more yards of speed to the point of impact. For this reason, the forty-yard dash is used as the standard measurement for speed for the N.F.L. and many other organizations of football.
Along with the progression of the sport of football, the equipment also changed resulting in enhanced speed. A study titled “Harmful cleats of football boots: a biomechanical evaluation” by a collaboration of many organizations, such as the Institute of Motion Analysis & Research and the Department of Orthopedic & Trauma Surgery, believes that the ongoing competitiveness of athletes in sports, such as football and soccer, results in equipment being constantly being improved and modified to enhance the performance of participants’ abilities. ( The two most used types of cleats are detachable cleats, also known as studded cleats, and molded cleats, also known as bladed cleats. The difference between the two are that the detachable cleats can replace the individual studs that make up each individual spike on the bottom part of the show, and the molded cleats are made up of many plastic-based blades on the bottom of the show that are molded onto the show and cannot be removed.
The study used repeated measures analysis of variance, utilizing both the straight run and the slalom, and the boot affect per type. They found that an important factor between the two types of cleats is the ground reaction force, GRF, which influences the speed and acceleration of the participant. The cleat, which encompasses the foot, influences the transmission of load between the foot and the ground. This results in the force between the foot and the ground to push the participant to great speeds. When tested with a straight run, the mean velocity of the detachable cleats was 5.51 (ms-1) compared to the molded cleats mean velocity of 5.55 (ms-1). This means that the molded cleats produced a faster velocity than the detachable, implicating the speed of the molded cleats were greater. The peak pressures were higher for the detachable cleats, almost steadily, across the intervals of the run. With this knowledge, the magnitude of peak pressure is used to determine the contact time between the cleat and the ground, with a higher contact time with the ground resulting in a slower overall speed. Therefore, in terms of pressure and impact time, the molded cleats were faster compared to the detachable cleats. Even though the study was regarding European football, known in the United...

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