The participants in the recording consist of two people; the subject of this research, Nayli Qismi Bin Qadrullah, a 2 years 8months old baby & her mother, Nurulizawati Binti Haji Mohd. Tajuddin. Nayli Qismi was born with special case; cleft lip and palate, unilateral cleft (one side only). She has undergone two surgeries already; the cleft lip surgery and the recent one was cleft palate surgery which she had earlier this year. Before she had her surgery, her speech was not clear and sometimes, she chose to point on things rather than talking. However, after she had her second surgery, she attends speech therapy twice a month and her development of language has changed drastically. For example; one of her first word that she pronounced is her name ‘Nayli’, she pronounced it correctly without emitting the first consonant which ‘n’ is a nasal resonance. Thus, with such progress, I am interested to analyze her language development especially on her phonology.
The recording was made in a living room while Nayli was having a play time with her mother. During the recording session, she was given a book, titled ‘Sleep Tight!’ to identify the characters in the book and also, the activity of each character in the book. In addition, towards the end of the recording, Nayli was shown our family portrait and was asked to identify everyone in the picture.
1.3 Cleft Lip and Palate
Cleft lip and palate is “an opening in the lip and/or palate (roof of the mouth) that is caused by incomplete development during early fetal formation” (KidsHealth, 2013). However, cleft lip and palate may also cause other problems such as difficulty of talking and also, hearing loss.
Fortunately, National Institutes of Health (2013) reports that the cleft lip and palate could be repaired by undergoing stages of surgery. The two most important surgeries are the “cleft lip surgery is usually done before age 12 months, and cleft palate surgery is done before 18 months”. Children with cleft lip and palate also need to attend the speech therapy, in order to improve on their speech development as well as articulation.
2 Literature Review
In literature review, I would like to discuss on the two sources that I have found online. First source is from a book chapter, titled Communication Disorders Associated with Cleft Palate by D’Antonio and Scherer. Meanwhile, the second resource is from an article of Speech Development of Children with Cleft Lip Palate before and after Palatal Surgery by Jones, Chapman and Hardin-Jones. Both resources are important to my research because it relates to the topic that I am about to discuss which is the development of the phonology of a child with cleft lip and palate.
2.1 Communication Disorders Associated with Cleft Palate
A book chapter of Communication Disorders Associated with Cleft Palate by D’Antonio and Scherer, discussed on how children with cleft palate have acquired their speech.