Client Centered Theory
Client centered theory was originated by Carl Rogers and is considered to be a humanistic theory of process or evolution (Coady & Lehman, 2008). Rogers developed 19 basic premises of personality in which an individual was held to grow through the processes of a reduction in defensive mechanisms and the self-directed development of internal cognizance (Corsini & Wedding, 2008/2011). The processes would occur when the theoretical constructs of congruence, acceptance and empathy were provided to an individual through interpersonal relationships (Coady & Lehman, 2008; Corsini & Wedding, 2008/2011). The concepts within the theory focus on individual experience, perceptions of reality, the inherent desire for self-actualization, internal frame of reference, self-concept, the symbolization of uncertain experiences, psychological adjustment/maladjustment, the method of how the individual creates value and the “fully functioning person” (Corsini & Wedding, 2008/2011, p. 163).
The theory’s basic tenant is that of a qualitative process where the therapist is a co-traveler with the client in the client’s private world. The therapist attempts to gain an empathic “understanding of the client’s internal frame of reference” in order to comprehend behaviors exhibited by the client (Corsini & Wedding, 2008/2011, p. 164).
Mrs. H. has a very stoic and plain spoken personality style. She does not open up easily to strangers. This theory applies to Mrs. H. because the theoretical constructs of congruence, acceptance and empathy are all necessary in order to gain her trust and to create a safe space for her to talk about her feelings about her husband’s death and her frustrations with her lack of mobility. This approach works in helping _____________________________________.
Attachment theory is based on psychodynamics (Coady & Lehman, 2008). The most widely accepted attachment theories were formulated by John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth (Coady & Lehman, 2008; Hutchison, 2008). The theory focuses on the ties between infants and parents, proposing that when a safe, secure environment is provided within the context of an emotionally significant relationship, then healthy development will happen (Bradley & Cafferty, 2001; Coady & Lehman, 2008). Healthy emotional attachment is considered to be pivotal during infant development as it is a precursor to healthy functioning in adult life (Hutchison, 2008). The four commonly accepted types of attachment are: secure, anxious, avoidant and insecure disorganized/disoriented (Hutchison, 2008, p. 119).
As the general population ages, more attention is beginning to be focused on how the theory applies to the influences of attachment for older adults in the areas of chronic illness and coping with bereavement and loss (Bradley & Cafferty, 2001; Coady & Lehman, 2008). Chronically ill older adults can experience the loss of their autonomy with often increasing or total dependence...