Shyam Maharjan (SRN 1054677)
How climate change had changed the management of agriculture in Nepal.
2. Literature Review
2.1. Overview of Climate Change
Climate change is defined as a significant change in the value of a meteorological element (such as temperature or certain amount of precipitation) during the period of time or periods of a decade (eg. Maunder 1992, Kim, nd). It significantly affects the agriculture and climate dependent crop yields (Kim, 2014). Lybbert (2011) mentions that climate change will considerably influence the agricultural tradition, which varies by location of geographical regions. It is not only impacts the agricultural productivity, but also in livestock and ...view middle of the document...
Nevertheless, these changing climate conditions are more likely affected the major agriculture products (rice, wheat, maize, vegetable and fruits) (Kim, 2014). Kim (2014) also mentions that by the end of 2030, these major crop yields would decrease by 5%-10% in Chinese agriculture. Whereas the IPCC (2007) emphasis that within next 20-80 years, it will decrease by 20-30% IPCC (2007, in Jin-xia et al. 2014). The growing irregularity of precipitation trends will have a substantial influence the crop productivity. So, farmers need to manage usual cultivation time as changing arrival and ending time of monsoon (Bartlett et al., 2010).
2.3 Adaptation of Climate Change in Agriculture
According to the UNFCCC, adaptation is defined as “regulating process of ecological and socioeconomic systems to reduce possible damages from actual and expected climate change, that is, actions taken to help communities and ecosystems cope with changing climate conditions” (Kim, 2014). Over the last five years, study shows that social difficulties to adopt climate change need to understand besides ecological, economic and technological bounds that affect the adaptation decisions (Adger et al., 2009; Lorenzoni et al., 2007)(see in Raymond & Spoehr, 2013). The social difficulties were imitating the farmers acceptability of changes, without accepting it endorsed the uncertainty in knowledge (Raymond & Spoehr, 2013). Chhetria et al. (2012) mentions that adaptation of latest agricultural tools and techniques are barriers for the villagers because of geographical constrain and not enough knowledge to use it properly. Unlikely, the history proves that farmers have been successfully adopted the changes unknowingly and able to manage an agriculture effectively in a changing environment. Meanwhile, Nepal has been improving the agriculture development in the last six decades (Chhetria et al., 2012).
3. Findings of review
Chettria et al (2012) empirical study reveals, farmers in rural districts were more probable to use traditional method rather than adopt new technology. Bartlett et al. (2010) argues that farmers have no information about the climatic effect, but they had been realized the changes impacts the crop yields. Biggs et al (2010) case study recommends that the government of Nepal should introduce strategies that encourage the farmer to manage available local resources (organic fertilizer, water reservation system, improvement of canal) effectively. The survey carried out in Krishnapur Village, Nepal reveals that impacts of climate change on villagers are vulnerably affecting the livelihoods of poor people and their agriculture production (Bhatta, 2011). Bhatta (2011) recommends deep studies will be required to analyze the continuous climatic impact on agriculture in the gross root level of Nepal. So the necessary adaptation strategy such as training program, awareness of new technology will be developed for local villagers.
In conclusion, the studies...