The DSM-IV, classifies personality disorder in categories, identifying significant maladaptative personality traits and most of the diagnosis are validated. Those types of disorders are linked to cognitive and perceptual abnormalities that affect the lives of individuals. The validity and accuracy of the DSM-IV has been questioned due to the absence of a dimensional model for personality disorders. (Lynan, 2001).The Five Factor Model (FFM) of personality illustrated five domains of personality used to describe human personality. The five factors are openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness and neuroticism. FFM is a basic configuration of the dimensions of personality which are related to the symptoms present in personality disorders.
The personality disorders section of the DSM-IV is been revised in an attempt to address the issue of whether to change the actual categorical model for a dimensional model. There are studies that support this change, however the opponents to the change argue that does not have clinical utility (First, 2005) currently the categorical model and the FFM are under active investigation, comparing the clinical utility of both models. (Lowe & Widiger, 2009).
Rottman and colleagues conduct a study in which clinicians have to identify the DSM-IV personality disorders in the basis of an FFM profile or on the basis of the complete set of the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for personality disorders. They concluded that is easier for clinicians to identify a personality disorder using the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria compare to FFM profile. Also clinicians identify correctly a personality disorder 82% of the time based on the DSM but only 47% of the time when the used the FFM profile.(Rottman,2009).
“Clinicians made fewer correct diagnoses of personality disorders and more incorrect diagnoses when giving ratings of patients on a list of the 30 facet traits of the FFM” (p. 389). They asked rhetorically, “if clinicians are unable to recognize common clinical syndromes using a
New trait-based system, how can [the FFM] be more clinically useful?” (p. 389). Skodol (2010)
In contrast with Rottman conclusions, a study from University of Kentucky found that clinicians could identify the respective personality disorders at a comparable success achieved with the DSM –IV diagnostic criterion when the maladaptative traits were provided to the clinicians. This study also found that the FFM is more useful in communicating with patients. (Glover, N. G., Crego, C., & Widiger, T. A. 2011, July 4).
There is a lack of studies that provide information about the clinical utility and acceptability of a dimensional model in the clinical practice and treatment decision, in contrast with a significant amount of clinical literature that provide recommendation for individual personality disorders, but only few documents about the clinical application of the dimensional model of classification. Some research support the reliability and...